January 22, 2022

Old Places

Where we study the past to define our future

‘Pretty Sally’ upon Big Hill


(1832 to 1851)

Part 1     Introduction
Part 2 The First Clues (1845)

The tragic & horrific death of a Susannah Norris (niece of a Mr Smith upon Big Hill)

Coroner Inquest Deposition 
Part 3A Big Hill pre 1841 – This part of the article is yet to be uploaded
Part 3B Mr & Mrs Smith time upon Big Hill (1841c – 1849c)

Arrival in Port Phillip District from Sydney, New South Wales (1840c)

Port Phillip District Census (1841)

‘House of Entertainment’

Winter of 1847

The north bound tracks out of Melbourne Town

Mrs Sarah Smith Accident 

The Overland Mail
Part 4 The passing of Mr & Mrs Smith (1849-1851) and where they were buried

Passing of Mr Joseph Smith (1849)

Passing of Mrs Sarah Smith – widow (1851)

Probate of Mrs Sarah Smith (!851)

the Old Melbourne Cemetery

Summary of the Early Pastoral Runs/Stations in the immediate vicinity of Big Hill
Part 5 Big Hill (1851-1859)
Part 6 Marriage Applications of Joseph Smith & Sarah Moreton (1831-1832)

 Refusal of first Marriage Application (1831)

Second Marriage Application – Permission Granted (1832)


Convict Beginnings (pre 1832)

Part 7The arrival of Sarah Moreton (later Smith) Smith as a convict (1820) & her two failed marriages

Thomas Whit(t)aker (convict) early life in the Colony (1814 to 1821)

Sarah Moreton first marriage to Thomas Whit(t)aker (1821)

Thomas Whit(t)aker – his life in the Colony (1828 and beyond)

Sarah (formerly Whitaker/Whittaker) nee Moreton Second marriage to Christopher Whamsby (1830)

Christopher Whamsby life in the Colony (1831 and beyond)
Part 8  Arrival of Mr Joseph Smith convict parents in the Colony (1804)

Joseph Smith snr.

Margaret Radshaw/Bradshaw

Passing of Mrs Margaret Smith (nee Bradshaw/Radshaw) in 1811

Passing of Joseph Smith snr. (1826)
Part 9Earlier lines of the Bradshaw (including the Caskett) Family in England

Caskett family (including RN records)
Latter generations of the Smith family

Norris family line

Passing of Louisa Ford (formerly Norris) nee Smith

Each Generation of earlier direct descendants known for
Joseph Smith jnr. and Sarah Moreton
Resources & Acknowledgements

Part 1 – Introduction

Over the past 170 years so much, yet so little appears to been written on ‘Pretty Sally’ (aka Mrs Smith) and her reputed ‘sly grog shop’ and/or ‘shanty’ upon Big Hill.  Many a preconceived notion has been painted as to the person she may have been, in particular specific interest referring to her illegal activities and supposed excessive girth, whilst others claim she was as ugly as ‘sin’ – the latter two at least, being irrelevant details, with little if anything apparently recorded per any known fact or referencing.  

Mrs Smith has always been and will remain the central character of the Pretty Sally Hill story, yet her reputed husband is never mentioned, indeed was there even a Mr Smith, or had he been relegated to a minor bit role?

For starters, yes Mrs Smith was indeed a real person, and hopefully the following will finally hold her in a somewhat better and brighter light, and just maybe we might even find that there was a husband in a Mr Smith.  Legend can often be far more an interesting a tale than the actual truth – for all we know Mrs Smith might well just have been a kindly lady, whose time upon Big Hill – certainly (per detailed further on) it is recorded that she was industrious and a lady of ‘good behaviour.

Additionally where exactly did ‘Pretty Sally’ actually reside upon the locality of Big Hill ?


Big Hill was the official name given to the land upon the crest of the Great Dividing Range between Mercer’s Vale (later Beveridge) and Kilmore.  The hill was first recorded in the late 1830s on the very earliest of maps as Long Hill. At this the time in the 1840s the Wallan Wallan township was yet to have been even surveyed.  Big Hill in the very early days of the Port Phillip District was considered a somewhat important stopping place for any intrepid travelers.

Ironically the original wayside stops along the inland track that included Kinlochewe (which was forever erased from the map in February 1851), Rocky Water Holes (later renamed Donnybrook and then still to Kal Kallo), Mercers Vale (later Beveridge – originally spelt Beverage – but the error was quickly amended) and Big Hill were all to be relegated in time with regards to their importance, on what became the major thoroughfare route to the north.

Victoria was not yet even a Colony and until 1851 was known as the Port Phillip District, it still being a part of New South Wales before this time.  The Crown appeared to have ‘big plans’ to establish a prominent township upon Big Hill, and with good reason too, as this was one of the main routes heading into the then much unexplored interior.  A mainly protestant community was soon to settle upon there – but the early vision never came to fruition, and the name Big Hill was to be ‘lost’ due in no small part due to one Mrs Smith.   Into the 1850s it was situated between the revenue gathering Toll Gates of Darraweit Guim, Wallan Wallan and Bylands, but yet not even this could salvage the existence of this hilltop community.

Just how then did Mrs Smith get away with conducting this supposedly illegal sly grog shop and shanty, with it being ideally situated on the one major track (of the several) that met at the foot of Big Hill (as detailed on a map further on) ?   Newspapers in Melbourne Town (which was but a mere decade old) were ever so keen and prompt in reporting on any news item – particularly from the much unknown interior of the Port Phillip District, yet never once is reference made to any illegal liquor licensing activity upon Big Hill

To be considered also was Mrs Smith first name even ‘Sally’, similarly was her surname even Smith ?  One point of possible interest is that at in the 19th century a popular ‘pet-name’ for a girl named Sarah was Sally– which possibly could be of some relevance further on within this article.

The search has been a trail that had been gone over time and time again by many a keen historian and the like, but Mrs Smith just wont give up her secrets. Maybe thats just how she would like it, given on what’s been said and reported about her for way too long…………………! If nothing else ‘Mrs Smith’ has permanently left her imprint along one crest of the Great Dividing Range, as early as 1847 reference can be found to the name of ‘Pretty Sally’ being used at the emerging ‘township’ of Big Hill. But who exactly was she, and can one form any kindly thoughts as to the person she may or may not have been in her everyday life.

So here begins this particular search of one Mrs Smith (and just maybe a husband too) and her story will now unfold in the order that this ‘mystery’ was slowly unraveled here (thus is presented not always in date order).  To commence, several challenges needed to be overcome and by far the biggest ‘hurdle’ to overcome was where exactly to start, what with there being the distinct lack of readily available reliable documentation, if at all any. 

There are however a few short ‘teasing’ snippets of recorded ‘first hand’ information (that has surprisingly been overlooked time and time again), as indeed the name of Smith is recorded upon Big Hill.

The first significant ‘find’ was found within newspaper articles recording the horrific death of a 9 year old girl at Big Hill in the winter of 1845 – and without this sole article being found this search would more than likely have ceased before it even commenced.  This article will therefore be presented from 1845 and forward in time – before retreating and in reverse date order to hopefully just maybe locate some more early details of relevance as well.

Some earlier research undertaken by others has indicated that Mrs Smith had arrived in the Colony at Sydney Town as a young woman – though no name/s or further details are ‘ever volunteered’, nor as to the circumstances in which she travelled.  In addition it has been suggested that a ships Surgeon’s Report was made on her journey to the Colony. Yet again frustratingly no christian, maiden or married names let alone a ship name under which she travelled are ever recorded – so was she a ‘free w\oman’ or a convicted felon………..?  

Reference to such a Surgeon’s Report being detailed may well elude to, that she did not arrive in Colony at her own free will. If having arrived per a transport for a term of no less than 7 years, her sentence in essence was that of ‘Life’ with her one way ticket giving up almost all hope of ever returning home. 

So to now commence in July 1845.

Part 2 – The First Clues (1845)

The tragic & horrific death of a Susannah Norris (niece of Mr Smith upon Big Hill)

On 26 July 1845 a Susannah (Susan) Norris aged about 9 was visiting her uncle a J Smith upon the Big Hill. On her arising in the morning her clothes caught and she suffered a most horrific death (Reg. 4069/1845 in Melbourne).   Her death records name her as Susanah (with only the one ‘n’) Norris.  Her parents were detailed as being a Thomas and Louisa Norris. 

That the reference to Mr J Smith and not Mrs Smith may well infer that likely Louisa Norris was J Smith’s sister (ie not Mrs Smith’s direct family line) – reference to Louisa’s marriage record is to be detailed further on.  In making a connection between Mrs Louisa Norris and Mr J Smith (with the initial of his first name now known) we shall return to shortly………..

Coroners Inquest – yesterday morning 31 July 1845, at nine o’clock, an inquest was held by the Coroner for the District, W B Wilmot, Esq JP, at the Pastoral Hotel, on the corner of Queen St and Bourke Lane on view of the body of Susan(nah) Norris a child about nine years old, who was on a visit with her uncle, Mr J Smith, of the Big Hill. The evidence adduced, showing that all the other inmates of Mr Smith’s house, on Sunday morning last, went out as usual, to milk the cows in the stockyard, left the deceased in bed, and before they had finished milking they saw the deceased running toward them enveloped in flames, and that they ran to her assistance, but she sustained so much injury before the fire could he extinguished, that she lingered till Tuesday morning before she passed away.

Fatal Accident — A coroner’s inquest was held at the Pastoral Hotel, Queen Street, on Wednesday, on the body of an interesting girl*, about nine years of age, niece of Mr J Smith, of the Big Hill, whose death was occasioned by her clothes having caught fire on Sunday last, when she was so severely scorched before assistance could be rendered that she survived only till Tuesday, morning.  The jury returned a verdict of accidental death by burning (per the Melbourne Courier, Friday 1 August 1845).

* as to the meaning of the reference ‘the body of ‘an interesting girl’ – it is not known what this specifically meant.

The Melbourne Courier Friday 1 August 1847


Per the Coroner Inquest Deposition of 30 July 1845 on the death of poor Susan(nah) Norris, the following document of some 4 pages has survived, per the testimonial provided by Joseph Smith with reference to his wife upon Big Hill. This document having now given up Mr J Smith‘s first name as being Joseph and that there was a wife (though her christian name is not detailed) – were they even truly married ?

Transcription of the  Coroner Inquest Deposition 

per the testimonial provided

by Joseph Smith of Big Hill on 30 July 1845 (see below)

see below for transcription
(for each of the 4 pages)

Page 1 & 2 –

District of Port Phillip in the Colony of New South Wales – Joseph Smith, Squatter residing at the Big Hill in the County of Bourke in the District aforesaid – the deceased was my niece and was on a visit at my (and the Big Hill) Station, on Sunday morning last between seven and eight o’clock myself and my wife went to the stock yard to milk the cows, and left deceased in her bed, we had been absent about quarter of an hour when we heard a scream, and on raising my head, I saw deceased running out of the hut in a flame.  I went immediately to her but before I could soak her clothes had nearly been consumed by fire.  I stripped of what remained, and took her into the hut, and put her to bed.  I applied what we had at hand that I thought might be of service and proceeded into Melbourne for further assistance, on the road into town I borrowed some proper applications and hastened back to the hut where I applied them as directed.  Deceased lingered until the following Tuesday morning the 29th July inst. when she expired.  I then brought the body into Melbourne and acquainted the authorities  of the fact. Deceased told my wife that immediately after we had left the hut on the Sunday morning the deceased had got out of bed and having taken off her night cap was standing with her back to the fire when the said cap ______ and the fire caught her clothes which she had on at the time.

X mark of Joseph  Smith

Taken and acknowledged this day year and place above mentioned A B Wilmott – Coroner


Page 3-

District of Port Phillip in the Colony of New South Wales – an inquisition taken by me Soveriegn Lady Queen Victoria in the township of Melbourne in the district aforesaid the Thirtieth day of July in the eighth year of the reign of our said Lady the Queen before A B Wilmot the Coroner of the body of Susannah Norris then and there lying dead when the oath of George Vinge, John Fitzgerald, George Coates, Gregory Foreman, Joseph Sopley, James Maine, George Roberts, John Ferguson, John Wilton, Richard Hetfield, Ebenezer Smith, John Roland – good and lawful men of the said district, duly chosen and who being then and here duly sworn and charged to inquire for the said Lady the Queen where taken somehow and by what means the said Susannah Norris was accidently killed in consequence of her clothes taking fire by which her system sustained so severe an injury that she lingered for a few days  when the said Susannah Norris expired.

In witness whereby as well the said Coroner in the Queen aforesaid to this inquisition.

Page 4 –   in___istreation set their hands and seals in the _______and year and at the place above ____________

This page was then followed by the signatures of the Coroner and the 12 good and lawful men of the said district with their seal.


Reference to Joseph Smith wife (and this is taken for now at face value that they were actually married) – at this time it is such a pity that ‘Mrs Smith’ given name was not recorded (she though a witness, was not required to provide a statement of her own for the Coroner).

In addition we also know that Joseph Smith also had a sibling in Louisa Smith was married to _______ Norris, (with no christian name known at this point), but we shall later discover later that his christian name was Thomas. Their marriage registration will also detail Louisa‘s maiden name was indeed Smith.


Any further research on the earlier Smith family lines may well be ‘fraught with danger’.  There are just so many ’combinations’ of possible names, with so many family histories recorded by genealogists on the internet against a muddle of Smith family names that appear to be totally unrelated. It does not help that all the Colony’s early records have survive (though a great deal have) or are incomplete. Indeed ‘best bet’ has likely been used on many an occasion in the absence of any further records/ information being freely and/or readily available.  In addition there is also an online internet discussion group/site regarding some of the early Smith names pertinent to this article, where by it is acknowledged that the early related Smith families are all in a ‘bit of a muddle’ with so much conflicting information having been recorded by various folk on multiple family trees.


There is only the one record to be found of any siblings so named Joseph & Louisa Smith per this research in the Colony that is likely of specific interest (as detailed below). Indeed this argument did still have its weaknesses (at this point), as at the time of her Louisa marriage she was to be found living in VDL at the time of her marriage – however fortuitously her death certificate clarifies that she was to be found living in VDL for a period of time. Louisa and her husband were later to arrive and settle in the Port Phillip District.

Siblings – Joseph & Louisa Smith (per charts below) –

Joseph SMITH
(farmer/grazier, labourer/ farm labourer)

(more specifics to be detailed further on)
married –

(more specifics to be detailed further on)
Mrs ________ SMITH
(her true christian – and maiden name – at this point is still unknown – to be revealed further on)

 (more specifics to be detailed further on)

Louisa SMITH   (manglewoman) b 25/2/1809 Sydney Town
chr 25/12/1809 St Philips, Sydney Town, NSW
d 26/3/1879 Melbourne, VIC
bur 28/3/1879 St. Kilda Cemetery, VIC
(inc. lived 15 yrs in Tas & 37 yrs in Vic.)
(1) m 20/8/1827 St. Davids, CofE, Hobart Town, VDL (x11) Witnesses – Edmund Howard & W Worthy

(lived first few years of married life at Hobart Town VDL)

(1845 living at Richmond Punt)

(1847 living off Bourke St, Melbourne Town)
Thomas NORRIS (convict – labourer, carter, water carrier, waterman, fisherman)
arrived in VDL 13/3/1823 onboard the ‘Competitor’  
b 1795c Coventry, England
d 29/12/1850 Melbourne, PPD
Lousia NORRIS (widow)   (2) m 1851 Victoria – No issue    

(lived in a timber Cottage in Prahran, Melbourne                                     

John Robert FORD (yeoman, labourer)
b 1796 Sussex, England
d 25/7/1876 Prahran bur
St. Kilda (Wesleyan)

Per Louisa Norris (manglewoman) – this occupation infers that she kept a mangle (wringer) for hire, which was used to press linen and cloth.

The daughter of Louisa Norris (nee Smith) who tragically died in July 1845

Susan/Susannah NORRIS b 1836c VDL  
d 29/7/1845 Big Hill, Port Phillip Dist. NSW (name perpetuated in 1850) per Coroners Court Hearing – accidental death – after a funeral service at St. James, she was buried in the Old Melbourne Cemetery (CofE)
Niece of Joseph SMITH
(Top/Centre Left Hand Corner) 1839 map of the Big Hill locality detailing two early tracks ascending/descending Big Hill, that meet just to the south of the todays Wallan-Romsey Rd (and the yet to be erected Strangeways Hotel) with the north bound Kilmore track track ‘ceasing’ just to the ending to the south of this location
Both these tracks are to the West (at least a couple of hundred yards of the present day road alignment).
The southern extremity of this map is where today’s Northern Hwy commences just north of Beveridge,
where the land here originally being taken up by the Murray family.

Part 3A Big Hill pre 1841 – This part of the article is yet to be uploaded

Possibly the first squatter to arrive and possibly settle upon Big Hill may have been a Hugh McElroy who held the squatting rights of Allotment 46 upon the climb of Big Hill to its crest likely from sometime after 1839 (on either side of todays Northern Hwy). Little more is known however of his time or endeavours there.  It appears that if indeed he did reside upon Big Hill that he did not remain there for very long – possibly he may have been one of the victims of the recession that hit the Port Phillip District hard – though this did not impact the economy until 1842. Was he indeed one of the unnamed persons per the 1841 census living in Smith’s hut ? If indeed he resided in the locality he almost certainly had left the immediate District by 1845, whilst he cannot be identified on the 1851 at all.

Allotment 46 is recorded as being of some 77 acres, 0 roods and 27 perches. However the Allotment also is recorded with the numbers 2000×3890 – if these figures represent feet – this would make the block of some 178 acres – and if this represents yardage – this would make that block to be of some 1607 acres……….

A couple of miles to the west of Allotment a Patrick McElroy (any relation to Hugh ?) took up some 312 acres on the western side of Boyds Creek (No. 3 Creek), and he still held this property in 1864.

Returning to Hugh McElroy who exactly was he, as this this research can unfortunately offer no more clues, however –

It is known that a 24yo single Irishman of the same name Hugh McElroy a labourer, arrived in the Port Phillip District as a Free Man on 13 Dec 1839 onboard the ‘Westminster’ a 610 ton barque.  The ‘Westminster’ had departed from London, followed by a stop at Plymouth on 18 August 1839, and it carried 210 passenger and bounty immigrants (9 were to die en route to the Colony). Also on board was a 23yo single Irishwoman in Elizabeth McElroy who was a laundress to be employed by F Manton as a maid/servant upon her arrival in the Colony. No connection between Hugh and Elizabeth McElroy can be found (per this research).

It is likely that this was the same Hugh McElroy who was married on 3 Nov 1845 at the St. Francis Church, Melbourne Town to Mary Butler. They had 4 children together and after his passing 1855 widowed Mary remarried on 26 Aug 1858 to Patrick Clarke, and together they had 6 children.

Big Hill (Allotment 46) circa 1840
held by a Hugh McElroy
before the arrival of Joseph & Sarah Smith

NB: another Hugh McElroy was an early arrival in the Colony in January 1800 on board the convict transport ‘Minerva’. He was tried in March 1798 at Inniskellan, Ireland and sentenced to 7 years. He appears in 1807 to have likely married Ann Cork – who arrived on the convict transport ‘Sydney Cove’ in June 1807 after having been tried in Shrewsbury, Stropshire in 1805 and was sentenced to 7 years. In April 1823 this Hugh appears to have living in Phillip St, Parramatta on a block of 22 perches that was valued at 11/-

A map survives from 1 January 1840 that clearly details Thom’s Station at Mercer’s Vale (later Beveridge) with his homestead at The Springs. The map also spans to the top of what later became Big Hill, however there is no reference that details any inhabitation or other early clues upon Big Hill at this time.

Part 3B – Mr & Mrs Smith time upon Big Hill (1841c – 1849c)

1841c – early expansion north of Melbourne Town, Port Phillip District had not yet reached Big Hill


Mr & Mrs Smith appear to have arrived in the locality of Big Hill in Port Phillip District sometime before March 1841. As to what means that they travelled from Sydney to the Port Phillip District, whether by sea or overland is not known (per this research).

Arrival in Port Phillip District from Sydney, New South Wales

It was in this immediate time frame that all the land in the District was taken up. The Crown Lands Commissioner in CJ LaTrobe (appointed in 1839) introduced Squatters annual general license fee of £10 for both Stations and Runs, with the additional fee of 3d for horses, 1&1/2d for cattle and 1/2 for sheep per head, per year from 1841. The Fee remained at the same price until 1844. The Crown was thwarted on many occasion in the early days as to how to obtain the Fees from squatters, partly becaus\e some lived so remotely, and on other occasions there were as disputes to boundaries and actual acreage etc,. Unfortunately details are relatively scarce on Stations and Runs in the locality, compared with that of the same in other Districts of Port Phillip.

Some of the struggles for early squatters was to obtain cheap labour (whilst supplying them with accommodation and rations) and decent Free immigrants. The Stations also needed to be self sufficient which included cultivation, growing crops, ploughing harrowing, reaping, threshing and much more.

Their earliest time known as being in the Port Phillip District is to be found per accessing the much valued book titled ‘Pastoral Pioneers of Port Phillip’ by RV Bills and AS Kenyon (1932), a publication that is held in high regard by many historians – on occasions due to the absence of any other reliable reference sources being available today Within it details that Joseph Smith held a pastoral license at Big Hill & Merri Creek between 1841 and 1847 – though this research can find no record of Joseph holding a pastoral license in 1841

‘Pastoral Pioneers of Port Phillip’ by RV Bills & AS Kenyon (1932)

Port Phillip District Census (1841)

The source of the Merri Creek is indeed only a mile or so to the East of Big Hill, and early maps record a Stringbark Range in this vicinity, which was also situated a similar distance to the East

There were several early censuses that took place in the Port Phillip District, including in the years 1841 and 1846 amongst others.  Unfortunately the 1846 census return, which would have been of particular interest, was destroyed immediately after statistical information was gathered. 

The 5 March 1841 census only detailed the head of the household by name. The census however does detail other additional information on all members of the household (if not all by name).

One particular entry is of distinct interest, regarding a Joseph Smith who was married, in a household of five persons (one other also being married – likely his wife) and three unmarried men It further details that the hut they lived in was made of timber, that it was completed and inhabited at the Stringybark Range (there were several places in the Port Phillip District that went by the same name at that time).  All bar one male were aged between 21 and 45, the other male being under 21 years of age. There was indeed a Stringybark Range approx. 2 miles to the East of Big Hill, near the source of the Merri Creek.

Of concern is that all five were recorded as arrived in the Colony ‘Free’ (which would not apply for Mrs Smith) – that said other convicts and felons who had received their Ticket of Leave and/or conditional or permanent pardon can be found recorded as ‘Free’. In addition one page of the census paperwork as head of the household appears to have been signed by Joseph – yet 4 years later the Joseph Smith of Big Hill had signed a Coroners Inquest document with an X – which is of some concern regarding them to be one and the same person.

One page of four of Port Phillip Census (1841)
detailing a Joseph Smith of Stringybark Range
One page of four of Port Phillip Census (1841)
detailing a Joseph Smith of Stringybark Range
(ages recorded as aged between 21 and under 45 – thus were born sometime after 1796c)

Other details from the 1841 census that the five residents all being of the Church of England.

As to why their were three other males living with Mr & Mrs J Smith, this will be considered further on.

At the time of the official date of the Port Phillip District Census on 2 March 1841 the population was recorded as of 11738 souls (8274 males & females 3464)


In the five years from 1837, the population of the entire Port Phillip District rapidly grew from about 1000 to 20,000 people by 1842.

July 1842 – Joseph Smith is recorded as having taken out a Depasture License, Western Port (under which the locality of Big Hill came under). This is the earliest date that this research can identify him having taken out such a license.

Between 1842 to 1843 the Port Phillip District was hit hard by a recession (briefly detailed further on). Had indeed Joseph taken over the squatting right of an earlier squatter who had lost their rights upon Big Hill due to becoming insolvent ?

September 1843 – Joseph Smith is again recorded as having taken out a Depasture License (license renewal).

August 1844 – Joseph Smith renewed his Depasture License in the County of Bourke.

Map of the Big Hill locality from the period likely dating from some time between 1842-1846,
which clearly details SMITH’S STATION

(the southern extremity of this map is where today’s Northern Hwy commences just
north of Beveridge, with the land here being taken up by the Murray family).

The above map has a slightly different track alignment to that of the 1839 maps (previously detailed). This map is also the sole one located (per this research) that details specifically the land where Mr & Mrs Smith resided and worked upon as Smith’s Station.


July 1845 – the tragic death recorded of Joseph Smith’s nine year old niece in Susannah Norris at Big Hill (as detailed earlier) who had been staying with her uncle and aunt upon the Big Hill, County Bourke, Port Phillip District.  

Broadly the Block (so numbered no. 100 later on) was where the Smith’s resided which in all likely totalled upwards of 1280 acres (which took in all the land from the foot of today’s Wallan-Romsey Rd to the top of Big Hill (to the West side of today’s Northern Hwy ascent of ‘Pretty Sally Hill’. It is possible that the East ‘border’ of their Run may also have extended some distance over todays Northern Hwy ascent of Pretty Sally Hill.

It might be reasonable to suggest that with all the acreage held by Joseph Smith that their hut may well not have been right upon the track for now (more to follow).

September 1845 – Joseph Smith was again granted Depasture License to keep stock, strip bark and to cut timber on the Crown Land upon Big Hill.

Less less than half of the 481 Squatters who held pastoral licenses in 1840 still remained on the land by 1845 as a direct consequence of the recession that hit the Port Phillip District only two to three years previous. The wool industry had reached its limits of any further profitable expansion. The severe drought years of between 1838 and 1840 made it necessary to import wheat, and in paying for this the liquidity of the Colonies was drained financially. The British investors who had financially backed the new Colony and its expansion became sensitive to the poor returns (Britain themselves having been in a financial crisis in 1839) and this in turn slowed the capital investment into the Colony. Subsequently there was a resultant fall in land sales, and income earned by the Colonists, and this resulted in an upsurge in the number of insolvencies which had in turn weakened the banks.


9 Feb 1846 Fatal Accident – it was reported that during hurricane a man, named John McSweeny, was riding northwards on a dray containing goods for Mr Lincoln’s new store at Seymour, when near the Big Hill the limb of a tree was blown with such violence against him as to knock him off the dray. The wheels of which passed over his body and he expired immediately. A coroner’s jury returned a verdict of accidental death. The same limb also struck a woman who was on the same dray and she obtained a open face wound of the cheek and nose.

Then we find that Joseph Smith again was recorded as a Squatter, and it was recorded in the NSW Government Gazette of Oct 1846 that he was a Grazier upon Big Hill from at least August 1846.

In 1846 a further census on 2 March in the Port Phillip District Districts – unfortunately this census return which would have been of particular interest here, was destroyed immediately after the statistical information was gathered.  At the time this census the population was recorded as of 32879 souls (20184 males & 12695 females), which was a total population increase of 280% from the previous census taken five years previous.

New South Wales Government Gazette Fri 9 Oct 1846
Sub-Treasury, Melbourne, 28th September, 1846)
The monthly list of Persons who have taken out Licences to occupy Crown Lands in
the District of Port Phillip, from the 1st to the 31st of August, 1846


In 1847 Joseph Smith is again recorded as a Grazier of Big Hill (Kilmore) in the County of Bourke, Port Phillip District – (NB : with the reference to Kilmore and not Big Hill, per being the closest township) 

Directory for the Town and District of Port Phillip (1847)

A comprehensive family tree compiled by descendants of William Hartley Budd upon Big Hill details that from 1846 he leased 1280 acres (two 640 allotments) from the Crown on Big Hill, and that the land had previously been occupied by a Mr Smith.  Other sources detail that this land was leased by W H Budd from 1847 or 1848. 

This research concludes that W H Budd had actually taken out a Depasture License in the month of September 1848, whilst maintaining his interest as the licensee of the Kinlochewe Inn* (between Rocky Water Holes and Somerton) from at least April 1844 until the Inn along with the entire village was raised to the ground on Black Thursday in Feb 1851.  Kinlochewe had ‘had its day’ and was never rebuilt, and W H Budd later interests were then upon Big Hill and at Wallan Wallan, where it took him many years to recover from his financial losses as a result of Black Thursday.

* the Kinlochewe Inn can also be found in the early 1840s recorded as both the Pentridge Inn and the Sydney Road Inn.


Mrs Smith and her ‘House of Entertainment’- such a name could well evoke quite innocently in the mind of the modern day reader that a place ‘going by such a name’ could well have been a premise of sordid and ill repute.  However this could not be further than the truth, per the scanty available records.

Joseph Smith being in possession of a Squatters license – was permitted (and actively encouraged by the Crown) to cater and host the passing travellers at what was termed at the time as a ‘House of Entertainment’.  Such premises became more and more essential as weary travellers were penetrating further inland.

At one time there were over 150 such premises in the formative years of the Port Phillip District. A  House of Entertainment’ which essentially was a place of safe protection with the ‘owner’ permitted to cater to the needs of a traveler, in providing food, drinks, accommodation and more. These premises could legally also serve alcohol – including beer, spirits and liquors and they were exempt/precluded from having to apply for the Annual License (each April) that all Inns, Hotels, Public Houses and the like were required to do in order to trade legally.  Thus the squatter and owner of such a premise was not classified as being a common Innkeeper or Publican etc.

Further on we may even discover the precise locality of this ‘House of Entertainment’ which has been lost for so long due to time. The opening of such an establishment may have seen the track divert slightly to their hut as it may well have been recessed off the passing track. Was this hut possibly what was to become the House of Entertainment with the track diverting to it, or was a new premise built ? All assumptions in the past have assumed that the ‘so called shanty’ was upon the top of Big Hill. However the premises were actually situated only half way up the Big Hill (to west of todays Northern Hwy alignment) Indeed it is able to interpret early maps that mark the tracks of the day in such a way (more on this to follow).

One would ‘hope’ that the Smith’s were able to improve on this arrangement as they built up their passing trade at their ‘House of  Entertainment’.

One article that appeared in the Port Phillip District press in 1847 detailed that at some of the ‘Houses of Entertainment’ along the road, the only refreshments available were salt pork, damper and rum, while at others a brace of pannikans represented sole drinking vessels in the house.  At others after a fatigued journey patrons upon retiring found that the beds were not clean and looked as reeked as if they had only had a ‘shake down’ at best.  The consensus was that the District of Port Phillip was now significantly advanced and that a much superior accommodation should be looked for by travellers.  Other houses were also accused of charging exorbitant prices, whilst the magistracy had often threatened at the Annual Licensing Days* to suspend such licenses – but other than the worst offenders nothing had been done.

* some ‘Houses of Entertainment’ were exempt from such a license – more so those that were catering for the inland traveller. Indeed it appears that the quality of such establishment may well have varied greatly.

No first hand evidence can be found that suggests that Mrs Smith (or her husband) conducted themselves outside the perimeters of the law or in a negative light.  Neither appear to have been brought before a Court in their time upon Big Hill. Indeed their premises were recorded within the Port Phillip District press of that time and never once was it suggested that Mrs Smith was operating a ‘sly grog shop and/or shanty’ .

As to any illegal trading involved in by the Smith’s upon Big Hill prior to 1846, no evidence can be found regarding their trading activities.

Indeed when the Smith ‘House of Entertainment’ did cease to cater for the traveller, it was lamented in the press of the day in that it was a great loss to the Port Phillip District.

The winter of 1847 – was a particularly severe one with the condition of the Sydney (Kilmore) track having deteriorated so much that by early July that is was near on unpassable, particularly in the section of swamp at Mercers Vale (later Beveridge) with the water lying up to 5 feet deep, and snow lying upon the bog filled peak of Big Hill. The snow remained for some time (weeks), with the track/s north and it blocked the immediate established route.

Reference to Smiths’ upon the Big Hill The Melbourne Argus Tuesday 6 July 1847

The House of Entertainment whether it was the original Smith Hut or in newly constructed premise – is now almost certain that its precise location was where W H Budd later was to open his first hotel half way up Big Hill (and homestead), on the very site of the ‘House of Entertainment’. The main counter active or negative to this argument to this is that this precise locatily is in a slight dell, to the West of todays Northern Hwy – and it is very difficult to imagine or visualise the heavy snow falls that were encountered upon Big Hill in July 1847 would have settled for the duration as detailed in the press of the time. The snow might well have had more chance of remaining for the period of time upon the top of Big Hill…………..

From the Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser, New South Wales  Wed 21 July 1847 – COLONIAL NEWS, PORT PHILLIP (THE ROADS) – from the accounts we have received of the state of the roads, particularly of the Sydney line, we think it only just to record the difficulties which the contractor, Mr EB Green, has to encounter in the transmission of the mails, and the extraordinary regularity with which he conducts the department. Nearly all the rivers and creeks are flooded throughout the interior, the roads cut up, swamps swelled into lakes, and two and three feet of snow in many places impeding travelling by carriage. In the neighborhood of Kilmore and the Big Hill, the road is strewed with large limbs of trees, apparently broken from the parent trunk by the sheer weight of snow. Our informant, who recently traversed the mail road, stated that it was positively impossible for the mail to travel the road between this and the Big Hill unless the obstructions were cleared away, ‘in fact’ said our informant, ‘I don’t know how the devil the mail travels at all over such roads’. – Patriot

The track that ascended Big Hill had been reduced to nothing less than a mere deep sunken bog at best, and descending the hill was also recorded as just as precarious.  In addition also in July it was reported that the Sydney Mail will not be able to drive over the Big Hill this season – with one dray going to Kilmore taking eleven days in going just twelve miles.

Indeed their House of Entertainment soon became a place of increasing importance as the Overland Mail that had been established between the Port Phillip District through to Port Jackson and Sydney Town in the early 1840s. The Smith’s, was an exchange place for mail between riders and their mail cart. 

Undated map of 640 acres and homestead in the side of Big Hill (post 1847)


North bound tracks out of Melbourne Town

In the years between 1837c and the late 1840s there was no fewer than four and possibly more track alignments that made their way up Big Hill, all bar one of which had disappeared by 1850 (indeed the surviving track was also gone by 1860). These alignments also ‘moved about’ slightly – likely due to a track becoming a ‘bog heap’ in the winter months, fallen trees, expanded cultivation, fencing or merely that travellers themselves having found ‘slightly better’ alignment/route at pertinent points of the climb/descent of Big Hill.

By the time the Port Phillip District had separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, there were two major routes that made their way up Big Hill. With the surviving track through the ‘middle’ of WH Budd property first replaced by the extended Broadmeadows Rd route and a new alignment of the last track through Budd’s replaced by an alignment very similar to todays Northern Hwy – though slightly different near the peak of Big Hill.

The following (freehand sketch) detailing – some of the earliest tracks that ascended Big Hill from 1839c from its foot (at the northern end of the later township of Wallan Wallan) up until the early 1860s………………..

Upon Big Hill
(joins with sketches below x2)
Southern side of Big Hill sketch (west)
Southern side of Big Hill sketch (east)

A=misc. cultivated areas (purportedly first sown in 1836), as they increased in size
B=Big Hill ‘public township reserve’ (later owned for many years by Hugh Muqueny/Mulqueeny)
C1, C2, C3, C4=likely extent of of Joseph Smith pastoral lease (Smith Station), which may well also have extended slightly to the east of the 1860c road alignment up Big Hill
C1, C3, C4=William Hartley Budd extent of Strangeways Run to 1854c
C4=William Hartley Budd 1854 pre emptive right (later he also purchased Blocks 76 & 120)
LEGEND– for above x3 sketches


Indeed the ‘Smith House of Entertainment’ was conveniently located in a prime location half way up the rise to Big Hill, with several tracks heading north from Melbourne Town (Port Phillip District) later all converging (by the early to mid 1850s) at the base of Big Hill, where W H Budd had another house which was later improved and became Strangeways Hotel by circa 1854 (after having briefly opened a hotel on the former site of  Smith’s House of Entertainment from 1850, as detailed previously). By 1862 the main tracks northward bound were –

1 – a ‘WESTERN TRACK’ north along Broadmeadows Rd, this route passed hotels at Broadmeadows, Mickleham (Parnells Inn) and the Darraweit Guim Tollgate (with Cummins Tollgate Hotel and Francis first General Store) before diverting 90 degrees East to meet at the junction at the foot of the Big Hill.  It was also possibly to head East from the Tollbar along a track that arrived neat the Inverlochy Castle Hotel. By the late 1840s the Broadmeadows Rd extended and diverted to climb/pass around the Western side of Big Hill where the gradient was not so steep (this forming the Old Sydney Rd (north of the present day Wallan-Romsey Rd).

2 – a ‘CENTRAL TRACK’ (the original track) along Kilmore Rd, passed hotels at Pentridge, Somerton (Royal Mail), the Carriers Arms Hotel, later the Craigie Burn Hotel (at todays Craigieburn) which was the first Cobb & Co. changing station from Melbourne Town. The route then continued northward past further hotels at Kinlochewe (the Kinlochewe Inn and Robert Burns Hotel), several hotels at Rocky Water Holes (later so named Donnybrook and then Kal Kallo*), onward to Mercer’s Vale (Beveridge) thence to the second Cobb & Co changing station at the Inverlochy Castle Hotel, some 1 mile south of the later named Wallan Wallan.

 * When the North-East railway was extended northwards a couple of miles to the East of Donnybrook (the railway station was so named the Donnybrook RS). With a community then emerging near the new railway station confusion reigned regarding the Donnybrook township on the main road north and the Donnybrook along the railway line. To elevate any further confusion the Donnybrook township on the main road north was later officially renamed Kal Kallo.

Next came McLeods Ardvack Hotel (from 1855) at the southern end of the new township of Wallan Wallan, with Strangeways Hotel (1854c) at the foot of Big Hill at the junction just before the steep climb commenced up Big Hill – with another welcome stop at Smith’s ‘House of Entertainment’. The latter site also being on the location of Budds Big Hill Hotel from the period circa 1851 to 1854. At the top of Big Hill then came O’Dwyers Big Hill Hotel (in the period 1858c to 1872c). On this route just north of Mercer’s Vale (Beveridge) and before the Inverlochy Castle Hotel a mile south Wallan Wallan was a ‘Y’ junction with the ‘EASTERN ROUTE’  that –

3 – a EASTERN TRACK’ followed the line of the Woodstock Rd after having passed the hotels at Epping and onto Wollert, Woodstock and Merriang (which became a Cobb & Co changing station).  The track at Merriang originally diverted some 45 degrees NW north of that township/locality, and passed by the NE side of Mt Fraser, before then linking in with the ‘CENTRAL track about half a mile south of the Inverlochy Castle Hotel.

The Woodstock Rd in time also saw hotels built at Epping, Wollert, Woodstock Rd, Merriang and Wallan East.  The ‘Y’ intersection that previously veered off to the NW, became obsolete in time.  Instead the Merriang Rd later continued north (similar to today alignment) and then passed the rebuilt Gap Inn,

.4-  The ‘PLENTY TRACK’ came across from the East (from todays Whittlesea District) and came to a ‘T’ junction with the Woodstock Rd , which was also the site of the original and former Gap Inn – having had burnt down.  The Plenty Route came across from The Plenty and Whittlesea.

All the above mention tracks continued to the junction at the foot of Big Hill at Strangeway Hotel. With the Woodstock Rd continued north a further ‘T’ intersection where the Rose & Crown Hotel was situated at one corner.  Continuing West this track took the traveler to the Strangways Hotel intersection at the foot of Big Hill (from 1851c).  The northern track from the Rose & Crown Hotel continued to later to be named and shortlived Merri Merri ‘township’ (1 mile north of today’s Wallan East), and thence onward to Morphett (later Wandong) with this township also yet to be established.

Roads by 1860c that lead to the top of Big Hill
with the possible exception likely being the old track that once forked to the west (just south of Beveridge)
and connected with the Broadmeadows Rd just before the
Darraweit Guim Tollbar, Cummins Inn, Francis store and a blacksmith shop

May 1847 – the District Constable Milligan was conveying two prisoners from Kilmore to Melbourne, he was dragged off his horse by the prisoners while coming down the Big Hill, and left by himself, the men taking the opportunity of making themselves scarce while the constable was dismounted . It appears that he had apprehended them on suspicion of having taken away a cash box, containing £20 from Mr Morris, of Kilmore. The circumstances were these three men came into the bar, and each had a glass of liquor, one of them asked for hot water,. The barman so went out to the kitchen to procure it, and when he came back the cash box was minus, and the men gone. Only two of them were apprehended, and Milligan started with them for Melbourne. Not having taken the precaution to handcuff them, they got away from him in the manner already related. It is to be hoped that the robbers will soon be secured again (per the Port Phillip Gazette and Settler’s Journal Wednesday 12 May 1847).

June 1847 – first reference to WH Budd interests at Big Hill

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Circa mid 1840s Big Hill Map
with older track alignment still being in use and passing through Joseph Smith lease
NB : of note appears to detail Broadhurst & Tootal holding Smith’s Run
(with later faint pencil addition of Budd)

Mrs ‘Sally’ Smith Accident

On Wednesday 8 Sept 1847, Mrs Smith was involved in a serious accident with a Spring Cart at the Beveridge Swamp.

The ARGUS Fri 10 Sept 1847
(Country News for our Seymour Correspondent)

Many a modern day writer has assumed per the above article that Mrs Smith was killed in this accident or died as a result of her injuries, after having been reported as being seriously crushed.  Mrs Smith however despite her apparent serious injuries, survived.  The timing of this accident was at a similar time to her husband forfeiting his grazing rights to W H Budd.  It might be reasonable to suggest that Joseph forfeited his grazing land in order so that he might be able to care for his recouperating wife and that in the short term, he may even attended to the day to day business of the ‘House of Entertainment’ ?

So for the first time we now have Mrs Smiths christian name in ‘Sally’, or do we ? – (more to follow on this), with reference to the name ‘Pretty Sally’.


Who Pretty Sally accurately was is in no way helped when William Ashton Coomer Robinson eho was an early overland traveller in the Colony who had tramped over the Great Dividing Range and in his 1861 book titled ‘Truth Stranger than Fiction’ he provided the following and much likely errinous journalistic account of this time. As follows –

He recorded Pretty Sally as being very stout and ugly old woman who kept a Inn at the hill’s base. Furthermore he then stated that Pretty Sally being fond off her cups, was brought home one unlucky day on a dray, in a highly spirituous state. Under such agency the mind it apt to travel into the imaginary regions of splendour; and in such a state of keen respectability, those mischievous elves flitting through the brain, with their magic wands suddenly turned the homely conveyance into a carriage. The elegantly was descending with pointed toe, in true aristocratic style, to place her foot upon the step, to conduct her to terra firma, when lo ! she placed it in mid air; the elastic fluid soon yielding to the overwhelming pressure of two and twenty stone. The heavy dame embracing her mother earth, like the meeting of long absent friends, so closely; her nervous system received such a shock, that in a brief space of time she was again doomed to measure her length, but this time not on, but below the terrestrial surface – she diedalas we now know this to be incorrect.

So where exactly did Robinson some 14 years really get his ‘facts from’ ? Robinson states that he actually got his account from an eye-witness, but there identity is not revealed, ,and that they had related the unfortunate circumstance in true colonial language; but as that elegant diction is fast losing popularity. Robinson then goes on to say that he must only repeat a part of this version of the catastrophe – ‘My word sir, had you seen that overgrown huge mountain of flesh, as I saw it. fall fall from the dray, and roll over and over, you never would have forgotten it; the earth fairly shook from the violent concussion.’ followed by ‘well well, the great must fall as well as the small, and when the grim old time shall come, and the mercilessly cut down the blooming and the withered at one fell swoop, strange as it may appear to hydrostatics, the light and the heavy weight will poise the scales – they must find their exact level’.

So so cruel……………, and indeed it appears certain that Robinson likely never ever met Pretty Sally at all !


Pre Emptive Rights – were established under the 1847 Order in Council and were taken advantage of by Squatters who had already settled upon large tracts of the land within of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales. Whereby licensees of Runs were permitted to purchase a portion of their runs to provide some security of tenure at the minimum upset price of £1 acre. In addition the residence or land upon which improvements had been made could be secured by the ‘owner’.

It well may be more accurate that W H Budd took over Mr Smith‘s lease on Big Hill sometime in 1848.

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1848 Map (with W H Budd Run)
with reference to The Long Hill and not Big Hill.

Newspaper accounts of the day elude that Mrs Smith were still in business upon Big Hill as late as February 1849, and that their business was thereafter sorely missed by a traveller, as detailed further on.

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Circa 1849


There was at this time (1847) a Pound Keeper employed at Rocky Water Holes (Kal Kallo) and there is a reference to a Joseph Smith impounding cattle there in the April. Maybe he had merely been rounding up wandering stock? Was Joseph however subsidizing his income with employment there or does this refer to a totally different person?  Was this the reason as to why Mrs Smith was passing through the Beveridge Swamp to visit her husband ?  Answers to which both we will never now know………….

William H Thane (an old  Mercers Vale/Beveridge name) is also recorded as the Pound Keeper there from January 1847 who had taken over the position from a Thomas Johnston who had been dismissed after being charged with forgery regarding a signature and the sale of some cattle, with the signature of John Murchison Esq. JP.  A charge of which he pleaded guilty to, and a charge of which he subsequently was found guilty of having committed.  He was then remanded for sentencing, and was the following month deferred, thence he was fined 10/- and to be imprisoned until the fine is paid.

Per documents available it appears that William Thane was the actual pound keeper and that Joseph Smith if indeed he was employed there he would have been under William…….?


The OVERLAND MAIL – until the end of 1837 the mail communication between the Port Phillip District and Sydney Town was by sea only however the service was irregular.  On 30 Dec 1837 the first fortnightly Overland Mail service commenced from Sydney Town to the Port Phillip District and return (with the route having been surveyed over country that was largely unexplored).  Letters then destined for Launceston, Hobart Town and Adelaide being transmitted via Melbourne Town at the desire of the writer – upon the payment of inland and sea postage costs.  John Conway commenced the service regularly from the following year.  The first services took up to 20 days on horseback and up to 42 days return.  There were to be unexpected delays due to the condition of the tracks, dense scrub, bushrangers and flooded  rivers etc.

In 1843 the new mail contractors replaced the horseback service with a two horse cart – to the north of Big Hill the first Kilmore Post Office was opened on 1 Dec 1843. By 1845 the delivery time of mail had been dramatically reduced. After the difficult winter of the 1847 (as touched on above) in which the north and south bound Overland mails were sometimes delayed because of the condition of the passage – and it specifically being difficult between the Swamp at Mercer’s Vale (Beveridge) and heavy snow falls at Big Hill. 

Subsequently in January 1848 it was announced that the Sydney and Melbourne road line was about to be considerably altered, and instead of running past the Big Hill, Kilmore, it will take the course of Messrs Kirk and Harlin’s farm on the Plenty, and via Mr Hawdon’s property. This alteration was said to be necessary for the conveyance of the overland mail, which would be totally obstructed in the ensuing winter by the flooded condition of the old line.

From the Melbourne Daily News, 28 April 1849 –  A surveyor and party were sent to make and dear a road from Kal Kallo (an early reference to this name) via Kilmore to Seymour, and to make a passable road over the Big Hill, on the Sydney “main line” of road. This however, was not accomplished, but on the contrary, such a divergence made as to impose additional impediments on the mail or main line, inasmuch as, the Surveyor and party sent to lay out the “main line” from Kal Kallo via Kilmore, and which route the mail is compelled to take — mark out a road avoiding the Big Hill and Kilmore for whose benefit this detour had been made .

The above route was possibly not what Mr and Mrs Smith all desired, as they would then likely lose a significant or substantial proportion of their income if there premises were by-passed). Indeed it is the period prior to 1850 that Mr & Mrs Smith disappear completely from any further Big Hill records.

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Early reference to Sally’s Hill with Broadmeadows Rd ‘extension’ around the West side of Big Hill
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Another early reference to Sally’s Hill with Broadmeadows Rd extension around the West side of Big Hill
(in addition of Block No. 100 is detailed, taking in all of the land to the top half of Big Hill
Map detailing where the former north bound Kilmore track crossed todays Wallan-Romsey Rd (refer to dotted lines)

In Jan 1848 it was reported that the Sydney and Melbourne road line was to be considerably altered, and instead of running past the Big Hill and Kilmore, would take the course of Messrs Kirk and Harlin’s farm on the Plenty,

Part 4 -The passing of Mr & Mrs Smith (1849-1851) and where they were buried

We know that Joseph Smith passed away before his wife as she was recorded as a widow on her Probate record.

By 1849 Joseph Smith of Big Hill was no longer listed in the Port Phillip District Squatters Directory (printed in 1848).  So clearly now W H Budd had taken over the Grazing land that he had previously obtained.

On 7 March 1849 Joseph Smith at the time of his death was employed as a ‘farm labourer’ passed away at/or near Heidleberg.  His funeral service was held on 9 March 1849 at St Peters Anglican Church, Eastern Hill, East Melbourne, and he was buried at the Old Melbourne Cemetery – he was recorded as being 40 years of age.  As to whether Joseph Smith was employed, just visiting Heidleberg (the locality of) or another reason at the time of this death is not known.  Both he and his wife may well still have resided at Big Hill.

NB – it should also be noted that there was also a Joseph Smith who was born 1809c and who died at the Lodden River in 1850 (aged 41) whose funeral service as also held at St Peters, Eastern Hill, East Melbourne & buried in the Old Melbourne Cemetery

St Peters Anglican Church, Eastern Hill (est 1847)
on the cnr of Albert and Gisborne St, East Melbourne

So despite having had that near fatal accident back in September 1847 Mrs Smith who was several years older than Joseph had outlived her husband.

Burial Entry for a Joseph Smith – farm labourer 7/3/1849
(funeral 9/3/1849 St Peters, Eastern Hill and likely buried Old Melbourne Cemeterey) of Heidleberg, Port Phillip District (aged 40)
ceremony performed by Vicar Daniel Newham
NB – there was not graveyard at St. Peters

Death Certificate

Family name: – Smith

Given name(s) – Joseph

Place of event: – Heidelberg

Mother’s name – unknown

Mother’s family name at birth – unknown

Father’s Name – unknown

Year – 1849

Registration number -28004 / 1849

The Government Gazette of March 1849 records W H Budd of some 1860 acres (referred to as Strangeways Run) – likely of some 640, 640 and 580 acres respectively ?

Another early map of Budd’s Station (circa late 1840s)
Note the tracks – ascending Big Hill

with Budd’s homestead to the East of the track through his area under cultivation
Note- does not include top half of Block 100 (top half of Big Hill)


On 28 January 1850 which the Colony in extreme drought a fire broke out that Major JS Boyd’s Run to the west of Big Hill. An strong westerly wind set the fire moving at an tremendous pace towards Big Hill. The fire however veered northwards to Malcolm’s Big Hill Run and then further north to the Belle Vue Run (John Rigg) before the fire was contained with only minimal damaged caused to property.

A May 1850 a press reference – ‘that  the House of Entertainment that existed 15 months ago on top of Big Hill is now closed’ (so Smiths premises were possibly still open to at least Feb 1849).  The present proprietor, Mr Budd did not combine such a mode, augmenting his income with his agricultural and dairy pursuits……….?

Also in May 1850 – touching the passage of the Big Hill, there is no place, between Melbourne and Sydney, which calls so much for a House of Entertainment, as upon the site formerly occupied by ‘Pretty Sally*’, – and it is generally understood that the Squatting License was originally granted in that locality upon the express understanding that, such an establishment should be kept up.   A very handsome independence might be rapidly accumulated by any enterprising individual who would open a house for the refreshment of the traveler in that particular spot, for there alone can water be conveniently procured (per the Argus 22 May 1850).

* a early reference specific to the name’ Pretty Sally’– prior to this time all references were to a Mrs Smith only.

Reference can be found in September 1850 to Budd’s Hotel (W H Budd), upon Big Hill, owned by Broadhurst and Tootal on the site of Smith’s ‘House of Entertainment’ . In a contradiction, the reference to Broadhurst and Tootal, does indeed incorrectly imply to Budd’s Big Hill Hotel possibly being upon the top of the Hill…………………!

A further reference to be found May 1850 – to a traveller after a refreshing and comfortable rest, they then commenced the ascent of the Big Hill, in the full assurance of finding a house of Entertainment about half way over, which existed 15 months previously under the auspices of ‘Prett Sally’, but what was my chargrin to be informed that the present proprietor Mr Budd did not combine such a mode of augmenting his income with his agricultural and dairy pursuits, there was therefore no alternative but to make the best of my way to Kilmore distant about 13 miles.


The state was devastated with the disastrous state wide bushfires of 6 Feb 1851, which later became known as Black Thursday – with much of Big Hill indeed being burnt out.  The Budd family (W H Budd was absent at his interest/s in Kinlochewe) being very fortunate to survive after having taken protection in the underground cellar and at the height of the blaze, and then deciding to evacuate from it.  It was a decision that actually narrowly saved all of their lives. The dwelling house was only saved after the most strenuous exertions – whether the house and Hotel were one re the house and suggesting that Budd’s Hotel was likely totally destroyed?   Despite W H Budd being  some £1000 the poorer (having lost the Kinlochewe Inn the same day) he soon afterwards opened a new hotel at the foot of Big Hill which became known was Strangeways Hotel (alas with a few variations of the name – depending on who the licensee was at the time).

On 15 April 1851 only two months after the Black Thursday Bushfires W H Budd was again granted a Innkeepers License for Budd’s Big Hill Hotel (Budd’s Station). Had W H Budd now built a new building or perhaps had just improved/enlarged the former premises (that originally were recorded as a mere hut)….?    

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Circa late 1840s
One of two early and similar maps with WH BUDD’S later pre-emptive right
(that still detailed the early tracks through this Run)
Detailing Budd’s homestead and another ‘building’ below the SW extremity of the Grass Paddock
Possibly circa late 1840s/early 1850s
Second of two early and similar early maps with W H BUDD’S later pre-emptive right,
that does not detail, any of the early tracks through this Run

W H Budd is not listed in the Ham’s Squatting Districts (for County Bourke) in 1851.

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W H Budd pre emptive Right of 640 acres

At the time of the Port Phillip District Census on 2 March 1851 the population was recorded as of 77345 souls (46202 males & 31143 females), which was a total population increase of 235% from the census taken in 1846, and an increase of 695% from the census taken in 1841.

Passing of Mrs Smith – widow (1851)

It was at the time of Mrs Smith passing (per this research) that her full and true identity can be identified in more detail – in that her christian and married names were Sarah Smith and not Sally Smith. To why – Sally was a ‘pet-name’ used in the 19th century for females whose correct christian name was Sarah.

Indeed Sarah was born Sarah Moreton, and was at least three times married (as soon will be detailed).

On 13 March 1851 Sarah Smith (widowed) of County Bourke passed away ((Death Ref No. 5006/1851) and she was buried the following day,  A service was held at St. James Church in Melbourne and she was interred in the Old Melbourne Cemetery.  She was aged 54.   

The Old Melbourne Cemetery was at the time the only large scale burial ground in Melbourne prior to 1854.

It has only ever been recorded after her death that Mrs Smith was to have weighed no less than a reputed 22 stone and was as ugly as sin – yet no sourcing is ever once detailed.

Death Certificate

Family name – Smith

Given name(s) Sarah

Event – Death

Mother’s name / Spouse’s name – unknown

Mother’s family name at birth – unknown

Father’s name -unknown

Place of birth -unknown

Place of death – Melbourne

Spouse at Death – widow

Age at Death – 54 *

Reg. year 1851

Reg. number 5006/1851

* the age recorded at death as being 54 – though she was possibly a little bit more older ?

Indeed the final years of Mrs Smith were likely ‘difficult times’ for her, as not only did she likely have a long period recuperating from her injuries sustained in September 1847, but at the time of her passing nearly four years later she had very little to show for all her hard work upon Big Hill.

The following Probate Record was the first link in establishing what indeed Mrs Sarah Smith, christian actually was – only to be found recorded some 4 weeks after her passing………

PROBATE – the following month on 4 April 1851 the Probate Record of Sarah Smith (Pretty Sally) details that it was administered by William Hartley Budd (who had taken over the squatters lease previously held by Joseph Smith of Big Hill (1848c) of Strangeways, Big Hill maketh oath and faith that Sarah Smith departed this life without leaving any kin on 13 March 1851.  Her only recorded possessions were her personal property.

That W H Budd administered her Probate, had taken over the grazing land of Joseph Smith and subsequently ran the Big Hill (Budd’s) Hotel on the previous site of Mrs Smith’s ‘House of Entertainment’ could well lend that possibly the Budd family remained on friendly terms and may even have taken care of her (despite the reference to ‘Late of Melbourne’.  Just maybe Mrs Smith may even have ‘helped out’ at Budd’s Big Hill Hotel which opened in 1850? Of the latter two assumptions we shall now never know.

Willian Hartley Budd

WH Budd took over Mr Joseph Smith‘s grazing run (1848c), though likely had an interest in the Big Hill area from 1847c.

WH Budd ran the Big Hill Hotel on the site of the former “Smith’s House of Entertainment’ (1850-1851). The homestead detailed on maps of the day named Strangeways (not to be confused with the later built Strangeways Hotel), half way up Big Hill.

By 1849 WH Budd (Strangeways Run) Claim to Lease of the Crown in the County of Bourke was recorded as being of some 1860 acres, with the grazing ability of 300 head of cattle or 3000 sheep. The Run being bounded on the NNW by James Malcolm’s and Broadhurst & Tootal’s Run. The boundary line being a ploughed furrow on the SSE and by the Dividing Range of the District of Bourke, Western Port and Broadhurst & Tootal’s Run on the West by South by a deep gully and a range running NW by North, and by Broadhurst & Tootals Run, by the Sydney Road and James Malcolm’s marked a line of trees running NNE and North by East.

WH Budd administered the Probate of Mrs Sarah Smith (April 1851)

Probate record for Sarah SMITH (Pretty Sally) from 4/4/1851
Administered by WH Budd 

(per the above) detailing that William Hartley Budd of Strangeways, Big Hill  maketh oath and faith that Sarah Smith departed this life without leaving any kin on 13 March 1851.  Her only possessions were personal property.

Sarah Smith was buried almost certainly in an unmarked grave at the Old Melbourne Cemetery (where her husband Joseph was buried) which was only used from 1842 to 1854, after which the New Melbourne General Cemetery was opened. Her gravesite likely was on the West or South side of the burial ground.

The Old Melbourne Cemetery

The former cemetery was temporarily reopened in 1864 for the sale of new plots and was reclosed in 1867 – the final burial taking place there in 1917 and it was closed permanently in 1922.  By this time the identification of many of the burial plots at the former site was made difficult as the register of burials prior to 1866 were either lost or destroyed.  There are several conflicting versions survive as to their loss. One that they where destroyed in a fire at the caretakers cottage, though no documentary evidence of this appears to have recorded such an event. Another story attributed to a John W Brown (monumental mason) is that they went down with the ‘SS London’ when returning to the Colony in the Bay of Biscany in January 1866 – but as to what they were even doing in a ship off the coastline of France and Spain is not detailed on any further record.

In the book ‘The Memorial History of Melbourne’ (Isaac Selby 1924) is written the effect of losing those records as it is not so important as some would believe, true we have thus lost the location of very many unnamed graves, but there is a very complete Register of Burials in the Victorian Statistics Office – this research however finds that only known gravesites were those that had a memorial marker and/ or headstone – which totalled only about 10% of all burials up until 1854

1855 plan of Melbourne showing the 10 acre old Melbourne cemetery site
(per Godden MacKay Logan Heritage Consultants)
Old Melbourne Cemetery – from plan of Melbourne (1865)
Per the above Mrs Sally Smith was likely buried in the southern or south-west portion of the Cemetery
Overlay of 1870s Plan of the Old Melbourne Cemetery
with current aerial and shed outline of the
Queen Victoria market (per Godden MacKay Logan Heritage Consultants)

Many graves were unmarked at the Old Melbourne Cemetery, whilst ‘headstones’ of red gum over time had weathered away.  Between 1919 and 1924 some 914 graves with surviving memorials/headstones were reinterred at Fawkner, Kew, St. Kilda, Cheltenham and the Melbourne General Cemeteries.  At this time many of the headstone when handled crumbled when any attempt was made to move them, and the former cemetery was by then in a extremely sad state of neglect. 

It is believed that up to about 10,000 burials took place on the site, and today there still remains approximately some 9,000 people buried under the sheds and car park of the Queen Victoria Market.

View of the Old Melbourne Cemetery from Franklin Street
(per Godden MacKay Logan Heritage Consultants)
Old Melbourne Cemetery
1923 image of ploughing Old Melbourne Cemetery site following exhumations
(The Argus  2 March 1923)

In 1930 a steam shovel was used to dig foundations for the row of market buildings fronting Franklin Street at the former cemetery site.  This resulted in the following article appearing in the press as far away as back in the north of England –

SKELETONS IN THE FERTILISER( CEMETERY SOIL FOR MELBOURNE PARKS) – a protest has been made against the use of soil from the old Melbourne cemetery as top dressing for the city’s parks and gardens. Residents of Parkville, the University suburb of Melbourne, appointed a deputation to interview the City Council on the question.  It was asserted that skulls and skeletons could be seen in the soil in the parks. Meanwhile the Parks and Gardens Committee has been asked to report on the matter. A prominent Melbourne doctor said, in an interview, that he was too hardened to be disturbed by the revelations and that personally, he thought the Council’s idea excellent. He failed to see why such fertile soil should be wasted and that he was proud to think that he ‘could be of some service to the world after his demise’. A well known company director was not so enthusiastic he said that the idea of being used as top dressing for a city park had no great appeal for him.” (per the Nottingham Evening Post, England – Friday  11 April 1930). 

Steam Shovel – Excavating the Old Melbourne Cemetery (1930)

Locally some 7 years later the Melbourne press reported –

PIONEERS’ BONES ON DUMP – MINISTER’S COMPLAINT (REDRESS PROMISED) – declaring that the bones of pioneers of Victoria who had been buried in the Old Melbourne General Cemetery had been thrown on the City Council’s spoil dump in Royal Park, near the Parkville Presbyterian  Church. The Rev. F Milne, minister of the church, protested to the Minister for Lands (Mr Lind) yesterday against what he termed an ‘intolerable desecration.’ Mr Lind said that he would investigate the complaint with officers of the  City Council, the Lands Department, and M Hollands MLA.  The bones Mr Milne understood, had come from soil excavated for additions to the Victoria Market, part of which was built over the cemetery. He indicated spoil heaps on  which bones, said to be human, were visible. Mr Milne’s protest was made when a deputation of many Parkville  residents interviewed. Mr Lind near the corner of Gatehouse Street and Royal Parade to protest against the erection by the council of an iron and wood stable for 24 horses and an engine shed, and the use by the council of the eastern corner of Royal Park as a dump for spoil, road metal, and manure heaps. Mr Milne pointed to his church, Ormond College, and the new Women’s Hostel at the University, and an infants’ school, and asked how such an abomination as the heaps be permitted in such a locality. Odours and flies were often so bad that he wished sometimes, that his faith would permit the burning of incense to remove the nuisance. Mr Lind replied that when he had visited the area previously with the town clerk Mr Wootton who assured him that the cause of the complaint would be removed. He regretted that that assurance had not been effected. The deputy town clerk Mr Dean assured Mr Lind that the matter would receive attention (The Argus 28 January 1937).

Queen Victoria Market
Plan of Old Melbourne Cemetery (showing sites of memorials/headstones 1920c)
per the – portphillippioneers.group.org.au
A modern day aerial view Queen Victoria Market (est. 1878)
over the site of the former Old Melbourne Cemetery

Summary of the Early Pastoral Runs/Stations in the immediate vicinity of Big Hill

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Early Runs surrounding Big Hill
(a modern but simplistic and easy to read map – courtesy of the Kiimore Historical Society)
Run / StationHeld by YearsAcreageStock
Initially unnamed it became the
Wallan Wallan Station
Major John Syme Boyd *
& John White (son-in-law)*
1840 to 1843 
2000 sheep 
Wallan Wallan Station/Run Major John Syme &
Mrs J Boyd **
1843 to 184827002000 sheep
Wallan Wallan Station/Run Major John Syme &
John Sein Boyd (son)
184927002000 sheep
Wallan Wallan Station/Run John Sim (Sein) Boyd 1849 to 185527002000 sheep
 Wallan Wallan Station/Run Major John Syme Boyd &
John Sime (Sein) Boyd
1855 obtained
pre emptive right
to 1860 (cancelled)
(no details readily available
– per this research)
1861 to 1866c
renamed – Willow FlatsSamuel Moore 1866c (possibly
slightly earlier)
831 +
* in partnership together they became insolvent in 1843 and the creditors
(they lost their Runs at Merriang and Longford – but held onto the Wallan Wallan Run)
** unknown until when John White kept is interest in the Station/Run
Run/Station Held by  Years Acreage Stock
Smiths StationJoseph Smith1841c to 1847/48  
Big Hill Run/Strangeways
– in 1847(?) was recorded that the property was supposed to house an Inn
(ie House of Entertainment)
William Hartley Budd 1847/48 to 18541280 100 cattle  
Strangeways William Hartley Budd 1849 to 18541860300 cattle
or 3000 sheep
StrangewaysWilliam Hartley Budd 1854 – obtained pre emptive
right of 640 acres
Run/Station Held by Years Acreage Stock
Long Hill StationTL Gibson1835c to   
Belle Vue Colonel HJ Whitedates ?
Belle Vue
(Swynton Estate)
AD Broadhurst & Alfred Dowling Tootal1843 (?) to 1853up to 17820960 cattle &
6000 sheep
Belle Vue Robert H Broadhurst & AE Tootal 1853 – obtained pre
emptive right
Run/Station Held by Years Acreage Stock
Big Hill RunJames Malcolm
(also referred to as at Mercer’s Vale – which
at that time was the closest named locality in the immediate district)
1838 to 1844   
Rands RunRobert Rand1845 to 184860004000 sheep
Big Hill/Rands Run James Malcolm
(1850 – John Rigg was
possibly a manager)
1848 to 1854 6000 4000 sheep
 Weena StationHugh Miller GuthrieMay 1854 – obtained pre emptive right  
Run / Station Held by  Years Acreage Stock
The DeneAndrew Beveridge
(managed by sons Andrew jnr. & George)
1842 to 184514720500 cattle & 3000 sheep
The DeneEliza Kilgour (nee Beveridge) & husband
AW Broadhurst
1845 to 1848 14720500 cattle & 3000 sheep
The (Dean) Dene Andrew Beveridge 1848 to 1850 14720 500 cattle & 3000 sheep
The (Dean) DeneEliza K Broadhurst 1850
Thom’s Station (at the Springs, Mercer’s Vale)Archibald Thom1838c to 1842  
Mercer’s Vale Station/Beveridge Station
(also referred to as Beveridge’s Flat)
Andrew Beveridge1842 to 184917280960 cattle & 6000 sheep

Part 5 – Big Hill (1851-1859)


Starting over after the Black Thursday bushfire W H Budd, only two months later on 15 March 1851 was granted a publicans license for the Big Hill Hotel (on the site of Smith’s former ‘House of Entertainment’)– the location of which has been lost to time.

Early 1850s
(note misc. tracks heading northwards)


Budd’s Big Hill Hotel recorded as being on Budd’s Station.

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Early Map of Big Hill (and one of the earlier track alignments – with track from Broadmeadows now extended around the West side of Big Hill)
Hugh Mulqueny was a resident of Big Hill for some 30 years


At some point, possibly 1854c W H Budd added a new frontage to an ‘old’ house at the foot of Big Hill (the earliest reference to this building), from where he then opened a new Inn so named Strangeways Hotel, Wallan Wallan (on the NW corner of todays Wallan-Romsey Rd and Northern Hwy intersection).  At this time Budd’s Big Hill Hotel at his homestead (half way up Big Hill was closed and the license transferred to his new Hotel, so named Strangeways Inn).

26 May 1854 W H Budd pre-emptive right of 640 acres.


Sometime in 1855 a George Hill was granted a ‘Refreshment License” upon Big Hill.  In June of the same year, George Cooke was also granted a similar license to operate a ‘Refreshment Tent’ upon the same Big Hill.  Was it these 1855 licenses that have been muddled in time with Pretty Sally and the ‘slog grog shop shanty’ tales……….?  Especially so if this/these licenses were only approved for a short periods of time (1 day, a week or month etc), and they then continued to trade after their licenses had expired? Such licenses were granted for special social events such a horse racing, ploughing matches and other agricultural events.

The roads/tracks at this time were still in appalling condition with deep rivets there being little to no maintenance ever taking place other that of removing/dragging fallen trees and limbs etc away from the winding track.

W H Budd was now recorded as holding 1860 acres of Crown Land (aka as Strangeways Run) having taken up more land to the west (across to the Broadmeadows Rd).


Is a blank, aside from several Crown Lands selection taking place at Big Hill / Bylands and the Gazetting of the Wallan Wallan township.

The redirection of the main road north and south did not help the Big Hill ‘township’ that had sprung up over the past 10-15 years.  The Black Thursday bushfire (Feb 1851) certainly would not have helped and the area became  more and more pastoral – with the name Big Hill now being more commonly referred to as Pretty Sally Hill.   

From 1858c

It appears that Big Hill was having a ’second wind’, and despite the Wallan Wallan township now having been surveyed and gazetted – with Richard O’Dwyer (erroneously recorded in the press on occasions as Dwyer instead of O’Dwyer as the licensee and owner opening up the Big Hill (O’Dwyer’s) Hotel upon Big Hill.

By this time a Thomas Cahill (1830-1903) and possibly slightly earlier had arrived at Big Hill and took possession of Allotment 100a which was of some 361 acres which extended from the northward boundary side WH Budd pre-emptive right to the the crest of Big Hill. Later he acquired Allotment 100b (of some 61 acres, 1 rood and 7 perches) so named ‘Mulquenies/Mulqueenies’ (which was formerly for some 30 years held by Hugh Mulqueeny). This Allotment was originally a parcel of land that was set aside as a reserve for public buildings, as at the time it was believed that Big Hill would become a township in its own right. This is the in the main the ‘triangular’ block upon and slightly over the crest of Big Hill (as detailed in the map below). Upon Thomas Cahill passing in 1903 ‘Mulqueenies Farm’ which by now was only of some 54 acres, was bequeathed/passed onto his nephew Garrett Cahill (his father Patrick, being a brother of Thomas. Later the land came into possession of Maurice Cahill (another brother of Thomas) who held of the land until his passing in 1917 at which time Maurice son in Patrick Cahill became the owner. As to who became the owner of Allotment 100a (above Budd’s Strangeways) after Thomas Cahill is not known per this research.

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An overview of the extended Broadmeadows Track that passed around the West side of Big Hill by/from 1850c
and the arrival of Thomas Cahill at Block 100a & Dwyer at Block 102 circa 1858
O’Dwyers Big Hill Hotel (1858c to 1872c)

O’Dwyers Big Hill Hotel upon the crest of Big Hill were recorded as being of some 2 sitting rooms and 5 bedrooms (exclusive of those required by the family).  The premises are known to have remained open until 1872c by which time it then consisted of 8 rooms (exclusive of those required by the family).

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W H Budd expanded Station Station
Richard Dwyer (O’Dwyer) first Block 102 of 355 acres
Thomas Cahill Block 100a of 361 acres
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1888 Map of Big Hill
(and the expanded properties of Michael Dwyer/O’Dwyer)
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Expanded properties of WH Budd

Part 6 – Marriage Applications of Joseph Smith & Sarah Moreton (1831-1832)

The following now endeavors to locate and hopefully find out a little more about the lives of Mr & Mrs Smith before they arrived upon Big Hill.

At this point it may have remained wise not to have delved any further back in time (pre 1841), and any findings here that are put forward may need to be reworded, pending any new records to the contrary surfacing that are possibly still archived away, and awaiting to be rediscovered.

Indeed there are several records of a Joseph Smith having married a Sarah ________ in the Colony prior to 1845 (this includes today’s New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmaina).  Each one of these marriages has been followed further (per this research), and all bar one of these marriages have been discounted – per reasonings such as one or more of each couple did not die in the period 1845 to 1851, or were ‘raising a young family’ with documented proof, their corresponding ages as at 1849 and 1851, to being able to establish where others were living in the late 1840s, etc etc. Thus there is this one remaining marriage that this research can not account for their later lives………

It should not be dismissed that some Colonial and related records have not have survived the passage fo time.  Thus the following as presented here could still well be proved to be flawed, per missing/lost/destroyed records- alas it being the only ‘tidy fit’ found.


We shall start, by briefly going back 13 years to the time of the possible/likely marriage of Mr & Mrs Joseph Smith. As previously detailed sketchy references have been made that ‘Pretty Sally’ came to the Port Phillip District from Sydney Town – but whether at the time married, single or other is not known.  Any article read inferring that she was indeed from Sydney Town has been void of any other additional information of any value.

The remaining unaccounted marriage eluded to above was an application made by a Sarah Moreton. a recent Ticket of Leave convict, for permission to marry a Joseph Smith (a Free man – born in the Colony) on 30/12/1831 in Sydney Town, NSW. 

So we can now possibly add that Sarah Smith (nee Moreton) was a holder of a Ticket of Leave pass – and her convict background and can now also be researched per related records available.

It is of great assistance that convicts names on almost all related documents and letters were also recorded by the name of the transport that they arrived on – that being no different with a convict application for permission to marry. In Sarah‘s case she arrived on the transport ‘Morley 3′. The numeric number representing that this was the third time that the ‘Morley’ had sailed to the Colony, with convicts aboard (more to follow in Section B). It is also of great additional value that on each occasion a female convict married in the Colony that the surname that appeared in any register/record was the same surname they arrived in the Colony as. This form of record keeping proves to be for the modern day researcher of immense value – and at the time obviously greatly assisted officials in keeping tabs on the whereabouts etc female convicts – but the system was not perfect as we shall discover further on……..

It was keenly encouraged by the authorities for convicts to enter into marriage, and to do so they had to apply for permission (not all these records are complete). In addition some convicts came to the Colony already being married, but were separated (almost always permanently due to their transportation). which likely meant that they had to wait 7 years before they were legally permitted to enter into another marriage in the Colony – that did not exclude two convicts actually living together. 

Many marriage applications were refused on a number of occasions due to one or both the applicants still being legally married – as we shall discover first hand below –

Refusal of Marriage Application – 

In the absence of any other matching marriage record being located

On 30 December 1831 Sarah Morton (no ‘e’per Moreton)* per the transport ‘Morley’, applied for permission to Joseph Smith (a Free man who was born in Colony. The application however was – REFUSED –  on the grounds that the female being already married’, 

Of interest is that their ages were recorded as 40 & 24 yrs respectively, thus Sarah was some 16 years older than Joseph per this entry (so Sarah was born 1791c & Joseph born 1807c) – though this research believes that Sarah may have been born as late as 1797 (per other corresponding documents).

* we later learn that the application should have read Moreton not Morton, (per the following entry). and with cross checking against all females who arrived on the transports ‘Morley’.

the application detailing that Sarah arrived in the Colony on the convict transport  ‘Morley’
and had been sentenced to Life,

Second Marriage Application (1832)

Yet Sarah Moreton (this time spelt correctly and not Morton) was persistent and not easily deterred, as only a little over a month later she reapplied for permission to marry the same Joseph Smith. This time some subtle variations were made on her application, with her name recorded as Sarah Ann Moreton – in the addition of a middle name, she also ‘slightly adjusted’ her age – now being some six years younger (born in 1797c).  On the 3/2/1832 permission was GRANTED and Joseph and Sarah were married at St. Philips, Sydney, NSW.

St Philip's Church | A Sydney Anthology
The second St.Philips Church, Sydney 1810-1856 (artist unknown – per this research)

Assuming this is indeed the correct marriage entry, frustratingly nothing more in then known about their early married life until Sarah Smith in 1839, when on 19 August nearly some 20 years after arriving in the Colony she was granted a Conditional Pardon for her continued good behaviour.  This such Pardon was reserved for convicts who had been transported for Life – and reserved for those that had proven themselves to be well behaved. There is not one report to be found after her arrival in the Colony where her behaviour and/or actions were brought into question.

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Convict Register of Conditional & Absolute Pardons – Sarah Moreton
Conditional Pardon – Granted
When Ordered – 19 August 1839
Remarks – Not Forwarded(?) ________
Joseph SMITH
(farmer/grazier, labourer/ farm labourer)
b 18/1/1807 Port Jackson, NSW
chr 30/8/1807 NSW
d 7/3/1849 Heidleberg, Port Phillip District, NSW
burial service 9/3/1849 St Peters Anglican Church, Eastern Hill, East Melbourne
(performed by vicar – Daniel Newham)
bur 9/3/1849 likely in Old Melbourne Cemetery VIC
m 13/2/1832 St. Phillips, Sydney, NSW – No Issue  
(formerly Whitaker and Whamsby)

ie‘Pretty Sally’ & her ‘House of Entertainment’
(1829 – was in service at Goulburn Plains)
Ticket of Leave 17/3/1829
Conditional Pardon – 19/8/1839
b 1796c Northumberland, England (?)
d 13/3/1851 Melbourne, VIC
bur 14/3/1851 Old Melbourne Cemetery VIC  

It is highly probable that sometime between 1839 and before March 1841 Mr & Mrs Smith made the move from Sydney to the Port Phillip District.  As to how they travelled (by sea or overland) to the Port Phillip District and Big Hill we do not know.

A search of surviving shipping registers having sailed from Sydney/Circular Key to Port Phillip/Melbourne (or as an intermediate arrival/departure stop between these two ports ) up until March 1841 – details no Mr & Mrs Smith, J Smith & S Smith, Joseph Smith, Sarah Smith or Sally Smith having as travelled together – nor any matching record of a Sarah Moreton. Most ships did not record the names of any persons who travelled in steerage (with just the number of persons being recorded). Added to which possibly some related records have been lost over time.

Indeed if Joseph & Sarah Smith had travelled overland (which has been claimed by other researchers) they would have been one of the earliest married couples to have undertaken such an ardious trek.

1838 Map detailing that the inland was still largely unexplored
with no settlement established north of the Wollert Parish

The following has also been suggested per this research –

For Joseph & Sarah Smith being able to run a Station (as recorded earlier), they surely world have required to have a certain amount of assets to invest. Per the 1841 census three adult males are recorded as living in their hut – where they indeed in the employ of Mr & Mrs Smith ?

Joseph Smith sister in Louisa is known to have married in VDL – could Mr & Mrs Smith have followed her there sometime after 1831 ?

Two newspaper Notices appear one above the other, in the Hobart Town Courier on Fri 23 Dec 1836. Firstly a notice advises that the public are to be cautioned against purchasing the Lease of my farm at Tea Tree Brush, which was also known as Sunbury Cottage (some 19 miles distant from Hobart Town). As the present tenant had to power to sell it without her consent under the present terms of its Lease – Sarah Smith.

Underneath this Notice appeared the following regarding the insolvency of a Joseph Smith, late of Murray St, Hobart Town, VDL. His occupation at this time was recorded as a Whaler. Of note regarding Louisa Norris (nee Smith) husband in Thomas was ‘possibly’ – according to some descendants of this family line also a Whaler – as ‘this’ name is recorded in various whaling fleet expeditions of the day.

Neither of these newspaper notices from 1836, or descendants of the Norris family speculation regarding the whaling expeditions can be verified in any way per this research.


At this point the story of Mr & Mrs Smith could well be concluded, however it is possible to discover more about both of their earlier lives before their likely marriage in1832.


 Convict Beginnings (pre 1832)

Part 7 –  the arrival of Sarah Moreton (later Smith) as a convict (1820) & her two failed marriages

Some of the NSW convict records were reported as having being destroyed in a 1863 fire, Then in 1869-1870 official government correspondence detailed that some of the records were in a ‘state of confusion’, and it was recommended that every precaution should be made to ensure that no records should be destroyed if they were likely to be of any future value.  In addition other related records that were in an extremely poor condition through poor archiving and were either unreadable or disintegrating were destroyed.  This lack of care over the years then made the classifying of their importance very difficult. So at this time, indeed some convict records were pulped, fortunately though this practice did not continue for too long (for further reading in more detail regarding the disposal of convict records – the NSW State Archives and Records can provide much more specific detail). In establishing who Sarah Moreton  previous husbands were this exercise was done by accessing potential marriage records in reverse, thus slowly working backward from the 1845 death of her third husband’s nieces. 

At the time of Sarah Moreton marriage to Joseph Smith in 1832 per both of application/s her surname is recorded as both Morton and Moreton* per the convict transport ‘Morley 3’ – despite the Colonial Secretary and other administrative staff keeping methodical records of each convict from their subsequent upon their arrival – there were on many occasions ‘minor typo errors’ recorded. Alas on close inspection it is also possible to interpret the original document with an ‘e’ in the surname.

Thus as this point, needing to verify if Morton/Moreton was her maiden name or a previous married name there convienetly was indeed a Sarah Moreton (spinster) on board the convict transport ‘Morley 3’. 

Per the ‘Morley 3’ convict register in 1820 there were some 19 females felons with the forename name Sarah aboard the ‘Morley 3’.  In clarifying that the marriage application surname was indeed the name that Sarah arrived in the Colony under under – a tedious search was then undertaken of all the Sarah’s onboard the ‘Morley 3’ transport. This resulted in the elimination 18 of the 19 Sarah after more details were found on their later lives in the Colony, the remaining name was that of a Sarah Moreton.

SurnameChristan NameDisembarkedSentenceBornDiedMarried to
BromleySarahPort Jackson14 years17821859unknown (died under maiden name)X
BrownSarahHobart Town14 years17951841X
ColeSarahHobart Town7 years17841821X
DownesSarahPort Jackson7 years  James Bennett 26/12/1820 ParramattaX
DummettSarahHobart Town7 years poss 1834 ? poss. Valentine Soper 1821 Hobart TownX
FarrellSarahHobart Town14 years1797aft 1828Daniel Garcia 1821 Hobart TownX
HarrisSarahPort Jackson7 years aft 1825Henry Makeer 1822 Sydney TownX

SarahHobart Town14 years1784c ?still alive in 1832 (held Ticket of Leave)  British Georgian halfpenny blank inscribed ‘Sarah Horton 1784’ with reverse side inscribed monogram of THX
KirtlandSarahHobart Town7 years 1796c ?  aft 1822X
MartinSarahPort Jackson7 years 1795c aft 1824believed to have marriedX
MoretonSarahPort JacksonDeath (commuted to Life) 1800c ?18513 times married
(3) m Joseph Smith in
Feb 1832
MitchellSarahPort Jackson7 years17961845X
Smith (alias Ward)SarahHobart Town14 years aft 1832 X
Swetman/SwatmanSarahPort Jackson7 years17681843application to marry Henry Egan 17/4/1827 REFUSED as still married to Benjamin Swatman (with 2 children)X
TennantSarahPort Jackson7 years after 1825Thomas Hatfield 3/4/1825 ParramattaX
TruemanSarahPort Jackson7 years1787
also recorded as 1795c
1873John Holt 6/5/1822 ParramattaX
WebbSarahHobart TownLife  1884Edward Copping 5/12/1826 Hobart Town (x7)X
WicksSarahHobart TownLife  X
Williams*SarahPort JacksonLife after 1837William Pegley 15/2/1822 ParramattaX
the 19 Sarah’s who arrived in the Colony onboard the transport ‘Morley 3’ in 1820

Seven Sarah’s could immediately he discounted as their dates of death were before 1851 (the year when Sarah Smith passed away).  A further eight Sarah’s could also be discounted for other clear reasons. This left 4 Sarah that were possible, all had also been sentence to Life – and eventually the remaining four were reduced to a solitary Sarah, in a Sarah Moreton.

It was however, still not known if it was this Sarah __________ (was a Life) who married Joseph Smith, though it did appear likely.

By accessing numerous convict records that the two previous marriages for Sarah Moreton were later identified. Per all her marriages she was recorded by her maiden name, (per the practice in the Colony). So we can hopefully to an extent we will be able record Sarah Moreton movements between her arrival in 1820 up to her marriage to Joseph Smith in 1832.

Sarah Moreton had originally been sentenced to Death for her crime at the Salop Assizes, Shropshire (per the the Series of Calenders of the prisoners at Shrewsbury Gaol), which was later commuted to Life. At the time she was recorded as being aged 18* (born Brockton, Staffordshire – correct spelling is Brocton). She charged along with a Frances Alcock (aged 35) upon the oath Francis Jones and others, with having feloniously broken and entered the dwelling house of him the said Francis Jones, of the Parish of Much Wenlock in the of having in the day time, no person being therein, and stealing therein one hemp shirt and one handkerchief, his property, and one muslin gown, the property of Elizabeth Barker: committed until they shall be discharged by due course of the law, this 22nd day of October 1818, by the Rev. MP Stephens, Clerk. Both were condemned and reprieved (per Liberties of Wendlock).

* per misc documents from this time Sarah year of birth are found to be recorded as circa 1800, 1797 & 1791.

Stropshire Lent Assize 17 March 1819
Calander of the Criminal Prisoners, County of Salop
Criminal Register  for Lent, Stropshire  (1819) Sarah Moreton – Sentenced to Death (crime – housebreaking)
Convict Indent – Sarah Moreton Salop Assizes 17 March 1819 (sentence commuted to Life)


The convict transport ‘Morley’ sailed from London on the 22 May 1820 was making its third journey to the Colony with her mixed cargo of both male and female convicts. Onboard were both Sarah Moreton and Frances Alcock and they arrived at the Derwent, VDL on 29 August 1820 after having been at sea for 99 days arriving. Here most of the convicts were landed including 74 females. 

Convict Transport  – MORLEY
(artist unknown)

The Morley thence forth then made for Port Jackson, NSW of which 50 were female, arriving on 30 September 1820.   All the convicts arrived in excellent Health per the Surgeon Superintendent Thomas Reid report. Two of those who arrived at Port Jackson were Sarah Moreton and Frances Alcock, there are varying records that give slightly different accounts as to who exactly continued their journey to Port Jackson – one of these being whether Frances did in fact actually disembark at Hobart Town ? Sarah Moreton however, was certainly one who continued her journey onward.

Arrival of transport Morley 3
Australian Convict Transportation Register – Sarah Moreton per Morley 1820
Convict Indent NSW – Sarah Moreton- life (servant) 1820
Settler and Convict List, NSW (1820) – Sarah Morton (no ‘e’)
reference to Shrewsbury  (refers to Salop, Shropshire)


Sarah Moreton in 1821 was married to a Thomas Whittaker (a former convict who was now Free) – more to follow further on.

Thomas Whit(t)aker (convict) early life in the Colony (1814 to 1821)

There were at least three separate Thomas Whitaker/Whittaker in the Colony at the time of Sarah Moreton arrival.

Two can be discounted/eliminated, in –

1 Thomas Whitaker (1773-1835) joiner by trade, from Lancashire arrived on the transport Surry on 28 July 1814 having been sentenced to 14 yrs at the Warwick Court  on 25 May 1812 at the Chester Court, England.  He soon after married, and was given an Absolute Pardon in 1819.  This Thomas and his wife Ann who may have been previously married, per the sons were recorded as 12 and 10 yrs old on the 1822 census (the family living at this time were living at Baulkham Hill, Parramatta). Some researchers claim that this Thomas and Ann were married in England (did she follow him the Colony with their two young sons, maybe.  Ann held a license to keep a Public House (The Labour in Vain – a somewhat notorious establishment) from at least 1816, and by 1819 Thomas was also recorded as a publican there.  He later is recorded as a Victualler and Hotel owner in Sydney Town and held the license at the same premises until 1834.

2 – Thomas Whittaker who in April 1817 was tried at Manchester and sentenced to 7 yrs.   He was transported on the convict transport the ‘Lady Castlereagh’ sailed from Deptford 20 December 1817 and headed to Portsmouth, where a further load of convicts boarded on 20 December 1817 (totaling 300 all up), they departed from Portsmouth on 22 December. The prisoners were recorded as having behaved themselves though out the voyage 261 men were landed at Van Diemen’s Land, departing on 26 May 1818 with the remaining 39 convicts were landed at Port Jackson. The most latest arrival of Thomas Whitaker/Whittaker was transported on the convict ship the ‘Lady Castlereagh’ who disembarked at Hobart Town, VDL.  On 24 April 1821 Thomas Whittaker (a labourer) per the ‘Lady Castleneagh’ arrived in Sydney Town from Hobart Town per the ‘Medway’ and was transported to the Sydney Gaol.  On 28 April 1821 he was transported to Newcastle per the HM Brig Snapper for the term of his natural life after been found guilty of stealing 100 sheep belonging to a John Clarke.  Again this Thomas Whittaker can be dismissed as he was only in Sydney Town for less than a week after having been transported from VDL to Sydney Town, thence onward to Newcastle, NSW,

The Thomas Whittaker who married Sarah Moreton married was as follows – was born sometime between 1769 & 1773 (depending on which record/s one accesses).  In all instances the transport was recorded as the ‘Earl Spencer’ that arrived in the Colony on 9 October 1813.  He had been sentenced to 14 yrs at the Warwick Assize on 14 August 1813 (this sentence was later commuted to 7 yrs).  His surname being spelt both as Whitaker and Whittaker on Colonial documents that have survived.

Colonial Secretary’s Paperwork 20 August 1821 –
Theft of Thomas Whittaker Certificate of Freedom & other property

(per the above) Colonial Secretary Office 20th Aug 1821 – Sir – a man named Thos. Whittaker who arrived by the ship ‘Earl Spencer’ and now resides at the home of Mr Twaite a Baker in Kent St, Sydney was about two years since robbed – Parramatta of the Ticket of Freedom and  considerable property, at the time of the robbery he had from motives of kinship given the letter to a man who stated himself to be the countryman, bur who absconded shortly after the said robbery perpetrated, the man sent to you himself has been apprehended at or near Liverpool with Whittaker’s Certificate in his procession and showing the description of the man who was formerly his lodger, I report  you will have the _____ to investigate the circumstances and if you should be of opinion with me that suspicion attached strongly to him as the perpetrator of the robbery, and it all counts to being a convict at large with a false Certificate, you will have the goodness to commit him for trial, his real name is Thomas Parkins and that he arrived by the ‘Recovery’

I have the honor to his – Sir – Your obedient servant F Goulburn – Col. Sec. – The Certificate is _______ – Darcy Wentworth Esq – Supnt. Of Police

Colonial Secretarys Paperwork – Theft of Thomas Whittaker Certificate of Freedom & other property
(basically a duplication of previous document)

(per the above) Colonial Secretarys Office 20th August 1821 – Sir – a man named Whittaker who arrived by the ship ‘Earl Spencer, and now resident the house of Mr Twaite, a baker in Kent Street, Sydney was about two years since robbed of this Certificate of Freedom and some considerable property at Parramatta, at the time of the robbery he had from motives of kindness given shelter to a man who stated himself to be the his countryman but who absconded shortly after the said robbery was perpetrated this man sent to you herewith has been apprehended at or near Liverpool with Whittakers Certificate in his possession and answering the description of the man who was formerly his lodger, frequent you will have the goodness to investigate the circumstances, and if you should be of opinion with me that suspicion attached to him strong as  the perpetrator of the robbery and at ___ events as being s convict at large with false Certificate, you will have the good commit him for Trial his real name is said to be Thomas Parkins and that he arrived by the ‘Recovery’.

I have the honor to be – Sir Yours obedient servant – Col. Sec. – Darcy Wentworth Esq – Supert’d of Police – Sydney

(per the above x2) – Police Office, Sydney 31st August 1821 – Sir – I have the honor to send you the Certificate of Thomas Whittaker ______, with __ to me in your letter of the 20th _____ and have to inform you that it appeared to on examination of Thomas Parkins, that Whittaker has left the Colony for more than a year part that therefore us charge of Felony could be substantiated against Parkins on that head  – but it having been an absentee from Mr Lord to whom he had been assigned and at large under a false Certificate, he was ordered by the bench of Magistrates to be sent to Newcastle for two years –

I have the honor to be – Sir – Your honourable Sec. – D Wentworth – Supt. Of Police – F Goulburn Esq – Colonial Secretary

Colonial Secretarys Office 31st August 1821 – Sir – I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this date, together with Thomas Whittaker’s Certificate of Freedom and have now

Darcy Wentworth Esq – Superintendent of Police – Sydney

Robbery of Thomas Whitakers his Certificate of Freedom two years previously at Parramatta
& the recent apprehension of Thomas Parkins at or near Liverpool with Whittaker’s certificate
in his possession (August 1821)

(per the above x2) – Now to request you will have the goodness to forward me a copy of the Examination by which it appears that Whittaker has left the Colony –

I have the honor to be – Sir – Your obd’t humble Servant – (signed) F Goulburn – Col. Sec.

We have the honor to transmit to you the examination that took place before us respecting Parkins, and beg further to inform you that on enquiry at that time we were informed by the _____ and other Constables, that a Whittaker exactly answering in person on the description, has left the Colony in the ‘Admiral Cockburn’ who had been robbed of his Certificates in the manner described in your letter, but in consequence of your communication this morning we find on further enquiry that the Whittaker above eluded to, was not the person we had reason to supposed and we have reason to believe that Parkins committed the robbery on Thos. Whittaker who appeared this morning before the Court, we have therefore to request that Parkins,may be ordered back from Newcastle to undergo a further investigation therewith.

We have the honor to be – Sir – Your obdt. Hble Servt. – Wentworth Supt. – Edw Riley JP – F Goulburn Esq – Colonial Secretary

Before Darcy Wentworth Esq. Superintendant of Police and a Magistrate of the Territory and Edward Riley Esq a Magistrate of the Territory
Thomas Parkins prisoner per the ship ‘Recovery’ stands charged with absenting himself from his Masters Employ
Mr William Hill ________ _______ Superintendent of _________ being duly sworn with that
the prisoner was assigned servant to Mr Lord, and answering to the report if Mr Lord,
he has been absent from Mr Lord employment fot nearly eighteen months
Signed Wm Hutchinson (Principal Supertt.)
Sworn before us 25th August 1821
Signed D Wentworth JP
Edward Riley JP and appearing that the prisoner Thomas Parkins
Before Darcy Wentworth Esq Superintendent of Police and a Magistrate
of the Territory and Edward Riley Esq Magistrate of the Territory.
Thomas Parkins prisoner per ship ‘Recovery’ stands charged with absenting himself from his Master Employer.

Colonial Secretary’s Papers – Thomas Parkins(

(per the above x2) Police Office Sydney – 1 September 1821 – We have the honor to transmit you the examination that took place before us as Parkins and beg further to inform you that one any _________ at the time we were informed by the Chief and other Constable that a Whitaker exactly answering ____ in ____ the description had left the Colony in the Admiral _________ who had been robbed of his Certificate in the person we had reason to suppose that Parkins committed the robbery of a Thomas Whitaker who appears this morning before the court and have therefore to express that Parkins may be _______ from ____ of a further investigation thereafter.

We have the honor to be for your obedient and humble servants- (signed) __________ – __________ – Edw. Riley JP-

To Frederick Goulburn Esq – Col. Secretary – ___ ______


Thomas Parkins had arrived in the Colony on 5 September 1819 on the transport ‘Recovery’ with a Life sentence. He later spent two years at Newcastle after being convicted 30 August 1821.

 Re the robbery of Thomas Whittaker’s certificate of freedom by Parkins two years previously at Parramatta and the recent apprehension of Parkins at or near Liverpool with Whittaker’s certificate in his possession; Parkins, who was sentenced to two years at Newcastle for absconding from service of S Lord and being at large for eighteen months under false certificate, to be returned to Sydney to answer further charge of theft of Whittaker’s certificate


Given that this Thomas Whittaker per the word of Thomas Parkins had seemingly left the Colony sometime in 1820 one could therefore easily conclude that this could not be the same Thomas Whittaker who married Sarah Moreton?

However Thomas Parkins had indeed lied to the authorities and this above mentioned Thomas Whitaker was still in the Colony.


Sarah Moreton – first marriage to Thomas Whit(t)aker (1821)

On 3 March 1821 the first named Thomas Whitaker who arrived in the Colony in July 1814 and Sarah Moreton applied for permission to marry.  Permission was GRANTED two days later.  On the paperwork Sarah is recorded as from the transport ‘Janus’ which is a clerical error – of note the female named above her name (Jane Brown*) on the application was from the transport ‘Janus’ and this may explain the clerk’s remiss.  The document from 5 March correctly records her as from the transport ‘Morley’.  By this time yes, her husband was a Free Man having finished his sentence.

The transport ships ‘Janus’ only had the one journey to the Colony in 1819/1820, and their is no reference to a Jane Brown being on the transport……….!

Colonial Secretary’s Papers Re: Permission to Marry at Liverpool
Sarah Moreton (prisoner, ship Morley) to Thomas Whittaker (Free) – 3 March 1821

(per the above) Liverpool 3 March 1821 – The following persons pray His Excellency the Governors permission to have their names Published in this church in order to their being married (__)

Thomas Whittaker , Free and

Sarah Morton (no ‘e’) – prisoner per ship ‘Morley’ –

(signed) Robt. Cartwright – Approved signed L Macquarie

approved (signed) L Macquarie

Note – records Sarah Moreton as from the convict transport ‘Janus’
(Colonial Secretary’s Papers Re: Permission to Marry at Parramatta*
Sarah Moreton (prisoner ship James**) to Thomas Whittaker (Free) – 5 March 1821
*   application two days earlier (3 March 1821) – recorded as at Liverpool
** paperwork of 5 March 1821 records Sarah Moreton as of the transport ship ‘James’
(error likely made as the female detailed above was from the ‘James).

Colonial Secretarys Office (6th March 1821) Revd. Sir – Accompanying this I have the honor to transmit you His  Excellency the Governor appreciation of the Banns being published between the parties as specified and applied for in your letter of the 5th inst. the receipt of which is hereby acknowledged. I have the Honor to be Revd. Sir – Your obedient humble Servant – (signed) F Goulburn – Revd. Samuel Marsden – Principal Chaplain – Parramatta

Marriage Record of Sarah Moreton and Thomas Whittaker
at St Lukes Anglican Church, Liverpool (1821)

(per the above) – Thomas Whittaker bachelor and Sarah Morton spinster both of Liverpool were married by Banns at Liverpool this nineteenth day of March in the year of our lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty-one.  The marriage was solemnized by W _ Cartwright.  The marriage was performed in the presence of Richard Jones, Ann Morgan and George MacKay (the latter being the clerk), with the witness being a John Cutler (clerk).

In the presence of Richard Jones(his X mark), Ann Morgan (her X mark) and George Mackay

Thomas Whittaker signed his name, whilst Sarah signed the paperwork with an X.

To 1825

The marriage between Sarah Moreton and Thomas Whitaker/Whittaker unfortunately was not apparently a success with her husband deserting her sometime between 1821 and 1825 – per the Gaol Description and Entrance book (Sydney Town – per 1 Dec 1828). This is only known because Thomas Whitaker later married a Sarah Norman and they had son Thomas born in 1826 (who later died in 1862 Victoria). 


per above (detailed) –

1 December 1828 Gaol Description and Entrance Book (Parramatta Female Factory) – Sarah Moreton
of Parramatta 19 November 1828 (Prisoner – General Sessions had been Deserted by her husband
1st Class)  at Factory December 1 Parramatta
Entrance to Parramatta Female Factory

Many female convicts upon arrival at Port Jackson / Sydney Town were sent to the Parramatta Factory where they were housed before they were allocated for a assignment.  In addition the institution housed any children of the convicts, reoffenders, the emancipated, the pregnant, those requiring medical care, the destitute and invalids etc. 

A system was introduced whereby the inmates were allocated into of two classes, either Merit or Crime Class with the system being remodelled as 1st, 2nd & 3rd Class and was introduced in 1826.  Females in 1st Class worked on assignment, 2nd Class was for those on Probation or were not available for 1st Class work, for reasons such as health as health, pregnancy etc,, and the 3rd Class was those who had been disciplined or for offences committed whilst on assignment.   

Examples of such work that may be offered :- 

1st & 2nd Class –  hat making, wool picking, cloth scouring, carding, weaving, laundry, needlework, cleaning, straw

plaiting etc, and for this work the workers were paid a small monetary payment.

3rd Class – were restricted to unpaid menial tasks such as stone braking or oakum picking etc

(per Wikipedia)

The Parramatta Female Factory
(artist unknown)
The Australian (Sydney, NSW) Saturday 24 April 1830
Sarah Moreton per ‘Morley 3’ in Service and Married
Ticket of Leave for good conduct in service– Sarah Moreton
per ‘Morley 3’
The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser – Thursday 22 April 1830
Sarah Moreton of Goulburn Plains per ‘Morley 3’ (in service and married).
Note – recorded as married (is this a reference to yet another marriage for Sarah
that this research has missed ?

Thomas Whit(t)aker –  life in the Colony (1828 and beyond)

By 1831 at Sydney Thomas Whitaker (Free Man) and now a 61 yrs married a Catherine Armstrong some 24 years his junior in Sydney.  Thomas was at this time on Bond. Catherine had arrived in the Colony per the transport convict ‘Charlotte’, having departed England on 27 March 1827 and arrived in Sydney Town on 6 August 1827.

Application for Permission to marry –  Thomas Whitaker and Catherine Armstrong (7 Jan 1831)

On 14 September 1826 Catherine Armstrong (b 1784c) had been inducted for Grand Larceny at the Middlesex Court where it was alleged that on 25 of August,1826 she had stolen 4 lbs weight of bacon – value 2/-, the goods of William Geary.

Henry Potter deposed – I am in the employ of William Geary a cheesemonger, of Broad St, Bloomsbury. On the evening of the 25 August the watchman brought the prisoner to the shop with this bacon, which I had seen about two hours before, and knew it to be Mr. Geary’s.

Francis Reynolds deposed – I saw the prisoner pass the shop and take the bacon out of the Window, took her with it in her apron.

Prisoner’d Defence deposed – It was the greatest distress that made me do it.

Verdict – Guilty

Aged–  40

Sentence  – 7 Years

per online researcher Maureen Withey (29 August 2019) – she wrote that Catherine appears to have been convicted earlier for a similar offence at the Old Bailey as follows –

Catherine Armstrong was charged with theft & grand larceny on 16 February 1826. She was indicted for stealing on the 23 January, 1 bullock’s tongue value 5/-, and the goods of John Bowles.

Thomas Bowles deposed – I am assistant to my brother, John Bowles, a butcher, of Drury Lane. On the 23 January, at about half past eight o’clock, a bullock’s tongue was missing.  Wilson gave me information – the prisoner was brought to the shop with it by Mason, the officer, in two or three minutes.

John Wilson deposed – I am a printer. I saw the prisoner go into the shop, and take up a bullock’s tongue, which she put into her apron, wrapped it up, and walked on.  I called the young man, and told him what had happened.  I went after her, and met the officer – we stopped her with it before I lost sight of her.

John Mason deposed – I am an officer. I took her with the tongue, Bowles claimed it

Prisoner’s Defence deposed – I have two fatherless children, and it was distress made me do it

Verdict – Guilty

Age – 40

Recommended to Mercy .-  Confined One Month.


Little is then known of Sarah Moreton life is this immediate period other than in 1829 when she was ‘in service’ at Goulburn Plains which had only been established a mere ‘handful of years’ – it is not known who she was in the employ of.

Frustratingly convict records available on the life of Sarah Moreton are somewhat sparse compared with many other convicts records from this period.

1829 map of Goulburn Plains

Sarah (formerly Whitaker/Whittaker) nee Moreton

Second marriage to Christopher Whamsby (1830)  

Sarah Moreton (married – alas ‘deserted’)
and living at Goulburn Plains, County Argyle
Ticket of leave
– for good conduct
Ticket of Leave – Sarah Moreton 1 May 1830
(per above) Ticket of Leave
Sarah Moreton – (1 May 1830) No. 20/108 1st May 1820 Sarah Moreton (Morley 3)
Trial – 17 March 1819 at Salop Assizes
Sentence – Life
General Remarks – Granted in the general pursuance of the Govt order of the 17 March 1829 – for good conduct in
service at the District of the Goulburn Plains
Dated – 31 October 1829
Married State – Altered for Liverpool order of Sec. letter No. 31/1028 _________
Altered from Sutton Forest ___ Col. Sec. letter _______________ 14th Sept 183_

On 17 December 1830 Sarah Moreton per ‘Morley 3’ and Ticket of Leave holder applied for permission to marry Christopher Waimby (also recorded as Wharmby/Whamby) who came to the Colony a Free Man and was aged 34 – permission was GRANTED.

Application for permission to marry – for Sarah Moreton ‘per Morley 3’
Ticket of Leave per ‘Morley 3’
Christopher Waimby (Whamby/Wharmby – arrived a Free Man
per ‘Marques of Hastings’,  34 yo) – 17 Dec 1830 – GRANTED

The ‘Marques of Hastings’ made a total of five journeys to Port Jackson, and had completed three before 1831 (having arrived at Port Jackson (9 January 1826, 31 July 1827 and 12 October 1828).  Christopher Whamsby travelled on one of these transports.

At the time of Sarah Moreton and Christopher Whamsby marriage on 17 Dec 1830 they were living at Sutton Forest (in the southern highlands of NSW) in the Southern Highlands of NSW, which was one of the first colonial settlements outside of Sydney.,

Register of Convicts Application to Marry – Sarah Moreton (Morley 3- Life) of Sutton Forest &
Christopher Warmby (Came Free, 34yo)

Per the above Sarah Smith (nee Moreton) had been married to Joseph Smith for some 7 years when she was recommended for a Conditional Pardon  (for good behaviour) – GRANTED


Christopher Whamsby life in the Colony (1831 and beyond)

Letter regarding Land Received (Bonds) Christopher Whamby – 20 Sept 1831
Letter re Lands Received for Christopher Whamby (undated)
On 6 May 1832 Christopher Wharmby married a Mary Palmer at Berrima, Bong Bong, Sutton Forest (Goulburn
Plains) NSW.
Re – Intention to Issue Deeds (Land Grant) Argyle, Goulburn – George Whamsby 29 June 1839

Christopher Wharmby by early July1839 had passed away in Goulburn, NSW

Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser
Tuesday 9 July 1839

Thus we now know the Marriages of Sarah MORETON –

Sarah MORETON (convict – Life)
b 1797c Northumberland, England ?
(no details of her parents and/or siblings are known)
arrived 30/9/1820 Port Jackson per ‘Morley 3’

(1) m 3/3/1821 Liverpool, NSW  -No Issue
(was deserted by her husband)

Thomas WHITAKER/WHITTAKER (convict- 7 yrs)
b b/n 1769-1773
arrived 9/10/1813 per ‘Earl Spencer’, Port Jackson, NSW
(a Free Man by 1821)

(2) m 1826 (or before) Sydney, NSW (x1 son) – marriage record if any was not located per this research

(3)m 7/1/1831 Sydney, NSW – No Issue
(convict 7 years)
b 1794c

Sarah MORETON (under maiden name)

1829 – working ‘In Service’ at Goulburn Plains, NSW
1830 – living at Sutton Forest, NSW
1/5/1830 – Ticket of Leave
(at this time Sarah claimed that she was still married)

(2)m 17/12/1830 NSW – No Issue
(never divorced)

b 1796c
arrived b/n 1826-1828 a Free Man per ‘Marques of Hastings’
d 1839 (sometime before July) Goulburn, NSW

Christopher WHAMBY/ WHARMBY/ WAIMBY later (2)m 25/5/1832 Beerima, Bong Bong, Sutton Forest, NSW)
b 1809 Co. Kerry, Ireland
(convict – Life per ‘Hooghley’ 1833)
d 1876

Sarah MORETON (convict – Life)
‘Pretty Sally’ and her ‘House of Entertainment’  upon Big Hill, Port Phillip District, NSW
19/8/1839 – Conditional Pardon (for good behaviour)
d 13/3/1851 – Melbourne, VIC
bur 14/3/1851 Old Melbourne Cemetery

Probate – April 1851 administered by William Hartley BUDD of Big Hill (who had taken over Joseph SMITH grazing land 1848c at Big Hill)

(3a) 30/12/1831 application for permission to marry Joseph SMITH – REFUSED (per Sarah being still married…….)


(3b)m 13/2/1832 application for permission to marry Joseph SMITH – for a second time (on this occasion this time as Sarah Ann MORTON aged 34) – GRANTED
per St. Phillips, Sydney, NSW – No Issue

Joseph SMITH
(farmer/grazier, labourer/ farm labourer)
b 18/1/1807 Port Jackson, NSW
chr 30/8/1807 NSW (grazier, farmer labourer)
d 7/3/1849 Heidleberg, Port Phillip Dist.

burial service 9/3/1849 St Peters Anglican Church, Eastern Hill, East Melbourne 
(performed by vicar – Daniel Newham)
bur 9/3/1849 likely in Old Melbourne Cemetery VIC

The 3 husband’s of Sarah Moreton per ‘Morley 3’

Part 8 – Arrival of Mr Joseph Smith (1807- 1849) convict parents in the Colony (1804)

From convict beginnings the first generation of the Smith family to arrive in the Colony were Joseph Smith (1783c-1826) and Margaret Smith Radshaw/Bradshaw (1783- 1811) – they being the parents of Joseph Smith later of Big Hill.  They both arrived in the Colony in 1804, Joseph by the convict transport ‘Coromandel’ and Margaret by the transport ‘Experiment’ which had left Portsmouth, Hampshire, England in convoy together.

FIRST GENERATIONof the Smith family in the Colony

Joseph SMITH (convict & labourer)

arrived in New South Wales 7/5/1804
b 1783c Middlesex, England
(travelled on the convict transport ‘Coromandel’ 1803/1804)
d Dec 1826 (aged 42)
bur 10/12/1826 St. Johns, Parramatta, NSW

m 3/5/1810 St. Philips Church, Sydney Town, NSW (x5+)

– parents of Joseph Smith & father/mother-in-law of Sarah Moreton (later of Big Hill, Port Phillip District) –
– travelled on two convict transports that began their journey in convoy together from Portsmouth, Hampshire –

Margaret Smith BRADSHAW (convict)
(referred to with the surname of RADSHAW in many documents up until her arrival in the Colony of NSW)
b 12/5/1783 London, England
(travelled on the convict transport Experiment’ 1803/1804)
chr 29/5/1783 St. Marys, Marylebone, Westminster, Middlesex
bur Jan 1811 at the Old Sydney burial ground * (with baby), after possibly having given birth to twins ?

was possibly/likely the daughter of a Captain John Smith BRADSHAW (of the 17th Regiment of the Dragoons) & Mary CARKETT (see right) who married 28/2/1781 Burnham, Buckinghamshire (x3) ?
– all 3 children had the middle name of Smith

SEE PART 9 for more details on earlier BRADSHAW, CARKETT and other related family lines in England

chr 13/10/1760 Devon
she was the daughter of Robert CARKETT (formerly of his Majesty’s ship HMS Stirling Castle and was lost at sea when the it was wrecked off the coast of Cuba in a hurricane on 5/10/1778)
who married Sarah DARRACOTT on 25/4/1751 St Andrew & Luke, Stoke on Dameral, Plymouth, Devon (Robert was a Lieutenant at the time of his marriage and was serving on HMS Surprise)

* the Old Sydney Burial Ground was used between September 1792 to January 1820. Within 20 years the site was in a sad state of neglect, with many of the headstones having also been vandalised. Today the former site lies under the Sydney Town Hall.

Burial - Early Sydney cemeteries - The Australian Museum
Old Sydney Burial Ground (1792 to 1820)
1869 for the construction of the Sydney Town Hall


Several family trees are available on the internet regarding both Margaret & Joseph (snr)– though this research concludes otherwise to almost all of these sources.

Joseph SMITH (1783c-1826) – was convicted on 3/3/1802 at the Oxford Assizes of the charge of ‘the altering forged note as same’, he was found guilty and sentenced to Life, and to be transported to the new Colony of New South Wales. 

Little other information is readily available about his crime.  He was later received on board the prison hulk ‘Retribution’ from Oxford some 15 months later on 6 July 1803 – he is recorded at this time as being 30 yrs.

PRISON HULK REGISTER (per the Retribution)  – Joseph Smith (aged 30)

TheCoromandel’ (with 200 male convicts) and the ‘Experiment’ (136 women and 2 male convicts) had sailed from Portsmouth on 4/12/1803. The latter of which was damaged after it sprang its bow spirit and her top gallant mast was carried away in the Bay of Biscay during a gale, and she was forced to limp back to the Isle of Wight for repairs – before recommencing her journey to the Colony.  The ‘Coromandel’ continued her journey alone, and arrived at Port Jackson on 7/5/1804.  All the convicts survived the journey in a good state of health (and were fit for immediate labour).

From the 130 women who arrived at Port Jackson some 21 were convalescents and they were immediately sent to the Sydney General Hospital, which the majority of those remaining being sent up the river to Parramatta.

Some researchers conclude that Joseph Smith first born children was by a native named Mary (1780-1812) of the Darkinjung people and that he later married Margaret Smith Bradshaw from the same convict transport. However early Convict Musters from this time detail that though Joseph & Margaret were not married until 1810, the were cohabitating together from a time not long after they had arrived in the Colony in 1804.

Some also suggest that after Margaret died he later married a Elizabeth Smith (same surname) who had arrived on the convict transport ‘Canada’ in 1810 Furthermore stating that she was already married, to a Henry Smith from whom shewas then permanently separated from upon her embarking upon the transport ‘Canada’.   This research suggests that Elizabeth Smith may have later married a Samuel Freeman in 1811 (and not Joseph Smith) and that they then had a family of 10 children – of which most was later associated with the Hawkesbury District in NSW.  Then depending on which family trees are viewed – several different lines of Joseph Smith’s life are available. Such is the debate that there are indeed several threads available on the Internet with active discussions regarding which Joseph is which in the tangle of misinformation. The researching of various documents on convicts in the Colony is greatly assisted in that almost all the paperwork includes details of the specific transport on which they arrived – which is particularly useful especially when several convicts have the same names.

Joseph SMITH (labourer)
Where Convicted – Oxford City Gaol delivery
When – 3/3/1802
Sentence – Life
Name – Joseph SMITH
Where Convicted – Oxford Assizes
Name – Joseph SMITH
Where Convicted – Oxford

(Per the above, page 1) – the inhabitants of this Colony severally persons who had originally come into it as convicts reported themselves at the said Muster as free, either by servitude or by Pardon, or a as being allowed to employ themselves for their own benefit by special permission of His Excellency the Governor, and whereas several of the persons who thus reported themselves did not produce any Certificate, Free Pardon, Emancipation, or Ticket of Leave without which the truth of their said statements could not be satisfactorily ascertained, and there being much reason to believe Imposition is frequently practised in this respect, the name of the reasons who at the late Muster did not produce any Certificates, Free Pardon, Emancipation, or Ticket of Leave but who represented themselves absolutely free or conditionally so, by the virtue of one or other of the named Documents, is now published, in order that each of these persons be apprised that only he or the other do, in the course of six ____ that from the present date, obtain at the Secretary’s Office either a certified copy of such Certificate, Free Pardon, Emancipation, or Ticket of Leave, as that they represented themselves to have been once ___________ of in the event of his or her having actually lost the original they will be considered as imposters, and immediately recalled to Government Work as convicts still under this sentence of the Law.

(Per the above, page 2) – 6 Nov 1816 – list of persons who came as convicts and who claimed they were Free at the last General Muster, either  by servitude, pardon or being allowed to employ themselves for their own benefit without supporting documentation per ‘Coromandel’ of Hawksbury (no connection with the Joseph Smith that settled at Hawksbury) – Entry No. 33 – Joseph Smith


Margaret Smith Bradshaw/Radshaw (1783-1811) – was likely born on 12/5/1783 in London and was christened 29/5/1783 at St Marys, Marylebone Rd, Westminster, Middlesex England.  Both her siblings also had the middle name of Smith as well. Per the Universal Magazine her father was Captain John Smith Bradshaw Esq. of the 17th Regiment of the Dragoons. Her mother was Mary Carkett, the only daughter of Robert Carkett (who died in 1778 – as previously detailed) latterly of His Majesty’s ship ‘Stirling Castle’.

Siblings BornChristened Church
Margaret Smith BRADSHAW12/5/178329/5/1783St Marys, Marylebone Rd, Westminster, Middlesex
John Smith BRADSHAW (twin)27/2/178428/2/1784St Marys, Marylebone Rd, Westminster, Middlesex
Sarah Smith BRADSHAW (twin27/2/178428/2/1784St Marys, Marylebone Rd, Westminster, Middlesex
Nothing more is known about the lives of Margaret’s twin siblings John & Sarah
Details – Mother and Aunt & Uncle of Joseph Smith Snr.
Purported – christening/baptism entry for Margaret Smith BRADSWAW
29 May 1783 (born 12 May 1783) at St. Marys, Marylebone Rd  Westminster,– Middlesex illegitimate
Parents Captain John SMITH & Mary BRADSHAW
Purported – christening/baptism entry for Margaret Smith BRADSWAW
29 May 1783 (born 12 May 1783) at St. Marys, Marylebone Rd  Westminster,– Middlesex illegitimate
Parents Captain John SMITH & Mary BRADSHAW

Nothing more is known about the lives of Margaret Smith Bradshaw sibling twins John Smith Bradshaw and Sarah Smith Bradshaw (per this research).

Margaret(Smith) RADSHAW/ BRADSHAW – Old Bailey Court (1802)

Margaret Bradshaw (tried as Radshaw), and recorded as same upon her arrival in the Colony) was tried on 1/12/1802 at the Old Bailey, Middlesex on the charges of theft and larceny committed at Twickenham.  She was found guilty and sentenced to death – the sentence later being commuted to Life. 

Margaret (Radshaw/Bradshaw) was indicted for that she, about the hour of five in the night of the 2 November 1802, being in the dwelling-house of James Hadland and feloniously did steal –

Items StolenValue
a cloak31/-
3 gowns40/-
3 petticoats20/-
a straw bonnet5/-
2 shawls10/-
2 shifts5/-
5 pairs of stockings7/-
3 handkerchiefs3/-
432 penny pieces£1/16/-
192 half pence8/-
Total Value £8/5/-

– the property of the said James Hadland and for that she, after having committed the felony aforesaid, the same dwelling-house burglarously did break, to get out of the same.

NB : Margaret Radshaw/Bradshaw was employed by James Hadland (corn chandler) in Twickenham, Middlesex.

James HADLAND sworn –

Question –Answer –
Where do you live ?At Twickenham
What trade are you ?A baker and corn chandler
Do you know the prisoner at the bar ?Yes
When did the girl leave your service ?On Wednesday the 3rd December
How long has she bee nwith you ?She came to the house in May last
Can you tell from any circumstance, what time in the morning she left your house ?About 5 o’clock
What makes you suppose it was about five o’clock ?Because our man was up, and saw her
When did you first know she was gone ?About seven, when I got up, I found her dirty things lay straggling about in the parlour; I told my wife of it, I went upstairs with her, and we found the girl’s bonnet there; we came down stairs again, I observed one of the drawers of the bureau open, my wife opened it, and missed some things out of it; then we went upstairs, and searched a chest of drawers; my wife missed three of her gowns; then we went to a cupboard, and she missed a yellow chip bonnet trimmed with black ribbon; my wife then observed the bottom drawer of the same chest rather open, she opened the drawers, and found one of her silk cloaks gone
In short, you found a number of other articles gone ?Yes
At seven o/clock when you got up, and found the prisoner gone, was it light or dark ?It was not quite light
Did you at the time, look to see which way she had gone out ?No, because the boy had taken down the shop
Then there was nothing in the house which shewed any marks of violence by which she got out?No
You are sure she was in your house the overnight ?Yes
What time did she go to bed?Between ten and eleven
You saw her between ten and eleven ?Yes
And you saw her as if going to bed?Yes; I saw her go upstairs
When you found your house had been rifted, what did you do ?She had a sweetheart at Brentford, I thought he might have some connection with this business; there was a Bench of Justices sitting, and I got a search-warrant, to search his premises, but found nothing; he offered his assistance to apprehend her, and on the Thursday we came to London.
Did your wife go with you ?No; I and this young man went together; we could not find her at any of the places she used to be at in town; then I heard she was gone to Hounslow; I did not find her there; on the Friday morning, I went to Brentford, it struck me, that I would go to the Magpye, where this young man used, thinking she might write to him, to let him know where she was; when I got there, I saw the post-man giving him a letter in the bar, which he said, he would swear was her hand-writing; and I opened it, and found where she was; I then went to Bow-street, and took an officer with me.
Is that officer here ?No; he could not find her; then we went to the Almonry, Westminster, to look for her, according to the direction; I found her at a very bad house in the Almonry; I found she was there, and told the girl, that her sweetheart wanted to see her; her sweetheart went to her, and told me, he would take care of her; I then went to the office, and got Bly and Jones, two officers.
Did you, or anybody in your presence, search the prisoner ?Yes, Bly pulled her things off, and I stood by to see what she had got.  
What was found ?She had a pair of pockets belonging to my children.  
What might be the value of those pockets ?One shilling, perhaps, I cannot say; I then asked her where her mistress’s silk cloak was, and she said, it laid in the window, pointing to the corner; Jones immediately went to the corner, and she said, it laid in the window, pointing to the corner; Jones immediately went to the corner, and took the cloak out of the window, and under that cloak laid the tell of the bundle of things; Bly took the things with him, he tied them in a bundle, and has had them ever since.

James BLY sworn. –

Question –Answer –
You are a constable ?Yes
Belonging to what office ?Queen Square, Westminster  
. Do you remember being present at this search, at the Almonry ?Yes, about seven o’clock in the evening, Friday the 5th of November; I had information that the prisoner was at a certain house there.  
You saw her in the house ?Yes
Do you remember asking her where her mistress’s cloak was ?I do, perfectly.
Do you remember what answer the prisoner made ?Yes; she said, it was in the window
Did you go the window ?I saw Jones go to the window; I saw him take the cloak, and give it to Mr. Hadland. told him to take care of it
Did he find an thing else under the cloak ?Yes, this bundle; they were not all found under the cloak, some of them were found in other parts of the room; I found a guinea and a half in gold in the prisoner’s pocket, a few shilling, and some halfpence; the silver and halfpence were returned to her, by order of the Magistrate
(To HADLAND). Look at the things in that bundle, and tell me whether they are your property ?Here is a pair of stockings that I can swear to, they have my name to them, my wife knows the remainder of the things

What do you suppose these stockings are worth ?They cost me six shillings, I will say four shillings

Louis HADLAND sworn –  

Look at that cloak ?I know this cloak to be mine, it had just come home from the milliner’s. I know it by a mark the milliner had put on it
What is it worth ?Three pounds
Would you give that for it ?It cost me five pounds ten shillings,  I have put everything a great deal under the mark, she had a pair of stockings on when she was taken
How many pair of stockings were there ?Five pair.
                        –(HADLAND) – My wife’s bonnet was taken from the prisoner’s head at the office
Did you see any thing else of your wife’s upon her ?Not that night; afterwards, at the office, a petticoat of my wife’s was taken off her
(To Mrs HADLAND) Is that bonnet and petticoat yours ?Yes, they are

Henry WHITE sworn –

  Where do you live ?At Richmond, I keep the sign of the Ship, where the coach goes from
Do you remember the time when HADLAND’S house was robbed ?I only remember the prisoner at the bar coming there between six and seven in the morning of Wednesday, the 3d of November
Had she anything with her ?A large bundle under her arm
Did she stay with you any time ?She stopped from that time till eight in the morning, and then she went away with the coach to town; she had a handkerchief with penny pieces in it, to the amount of two pounds
Did you see them ?Yes, I gave her cash for them; she said, there were two pounds worth,  I told her, as they seemed to be very heavy, I would give her, two-pound note for them; I told them out, and they amounted to two poundsthree shillings and sixpence, and I gave her two pounds three shillings and sixpence for them
(To HADLAND). On the morning of the 3d of November, did you miss any penny-pieces ?Yes, to the amount of two pounds four shillings
All in penny-pieces ?No, there were about eight shillings in halfpence, and the rest in penny-pieces
( To WHITE). In the two pounds three shillings and sixpence, were there any halfpence mixedThey were, but I cannot say how many
PRISONERI have nothing to say
VERDICTGuilty of stealing goods in the dwelling-house, value 40s. but not guilty of the burglary
CONVICTED1 December 1802
Proceedings of the Old Bailey, 1st December 1802
(transcribed above)
for Margaret Bradshaw (Radshaw)
Margaret RADSHAW – Indent
Where Convicted -Gaol Delivery,
When – 1 /12/1802
Term – Life


(per above) – Misc entries for Margaret Radshaw after being found guilty and sentenced to death including commuting of death Sentence to be transported to the Eastern coast of New South Wales for and during the term of her natural life. Under arrest Margaret had initially been ‘housed’ at the Tothill Fields Prison (also known as Westminster House of Correction, Bridewell) . During the period of her trial (Dec 1802) until at least June 1803 she was held in the Newgate Gaol.

Children of Joseph SMITH and Margaret Smith BRADSHAW/RADSHAW –

Joseph SMITH (birth registered as BRADSHAW)b 1804 Port Jackson, NSW (Windsor ?)  –bur 1804 (as Joseph SMITH) Old Sydney Burial Ground
Joseph SMITH jnr (farmer/ grazier/labourer)
(later of Smith Station, Big Hill, Port Phillip District)
b 18/1/1807 Port Jackson NSW
chr 30/8/1807 St Philips, Sydney Towndied 7/3/1849 Heidleberg
burial service conducted by Vicar Daniel Newham 9/3/1849 St Peters Anglican Church, Eastern Hill (East Melbourne)
and likely bur 9/3/1849 Old Melbourne Cemetery
Louisa SMITH
(inc. lived 15 yrs in Tas & 37 yrs in Vic.)
b 25/2/1809 Sydney Town NSW chr 25/12/1809 St Philips, Sydney Townwas twice married and widowed
d 26/3/1879 Melbourne
bur 28/3/1879 St. Kilda Cemetery
William SMITH (possible son ?)b 1809 Windsor, NSW  –(no other details known on his life*)
‘infant’ SMITH **b 13/1/1811 Sydney Town  chr 13/1/1811 St Philips, Sydney Townbur 21/1/1811 Old Sydney Burial Ground
Sarah SMITH **b 13/1/1811 Sydney Town(is possibly the ‘infant’ Smith recorded above ?)
Details – Siblings of Joseph SMITH

* one Smith family researcher, makes claim that William Smith was born 2/2/1809 Richmond NSW, died 3/5/1881 Windsor NSW and was buried 16/5/1881 Sydney, NSW.

** possibly/likely one and the same child (or were they twins) ?

Part 9 – Earlier lines of the Bradshaw (including the Carkett) Family in England

Mary Bradshaw (nee Carkett) parents were –

Captain John Smith Bradshaw (of the 17th Regiment of the Dragoons) and Mary Carkett (christened 13/10/1760 Devon) were married 28/2/1781 in Burnham, Buckinghamshire (x3) ? – all 3 children had the middle name of Smith.

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Christening of Mary Carkett on 13 October 1760 ____________ ,Devon
parents Capt. Robert and Sarah Carkett, (nee Darracott)

Mary Carkett was the daughter of Robert Carkett (born 17/6/1719 Plymouth, Devon) and Sarah Darracott (born 25/5/1725) who married on 25/4/1751 St Andrew & Luke, Stoke on Dameral, Plymouth, Devon (also recorded as 28/4/1751 St George, East Stonehouse, Devon ). Robert was a Lieutenant at the time of his marriage and was serving on ‘HMS Surprise’.

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Marriage Certificate of Robert Carkett and Sarah Darracott on 25 April 1751 at East Stonehouse, Devon

Robert Carkett parents were John Carkitt/Carkett (1685-1735) and Sarah Edgecombe (1692c-1760) who had marrierd 2/1/1716 at Ermington, Devon (together they had 3 children). Capt. Robert Carkett was of His Majesty’s ship the ‘HM Stirling Castle’ a 64 gun third rate ship of the Worcester Class when it was lost at sea when the it was wrecked on the Silver Keys, off the coast of Cuba during a hurricane on 5/10/1780. The Massachusetts ship ‘Aurora’  sailing from Boston to Port au Prince came upon the  wreckage and was able to save a Midshipman and four seamen.

John Carkitt/Carkett was christened 2 Jun 1685 at Charles the Martyr, Plymouth, Devon.

Representation of the unfortunate Loss of His Majesty's Ship Stirling Castle - after having been dismasted in the Great Hurricane Octr 6th 1780 - was wrecked near the Silver Keys, off the NE end of Island Hispaniola RMG PY0732.jpg
4th – HMS Stirling Castle wrecked 5 October 1780
(credit – William Elliott & Valentine Green)

Robert Carkett – Royal Navy Career

Date fromDate toEvent
1734Able Seaman – ‘Exeter’, ‘Grampus’ & ‘Alrney’ (latter two were sloops)
17381743Midshipman – Mediterranean Fleet
18/7/1743 Passed the Lieutenant’s Examination ADM 107/3/501
26/2/1744 or 1745 Lieutenant – ‘HMS Deptford’ (East Indies)
1/2/1745 or 174625/9/17463rd Lt. & Lt. at Arms (confirmed 24/9/1746)
Sept 1846Returned to England,- ‘HMS Surprize’
March 1755 ‘HMS Monmouth’ – small 64 gun ship – in the Channel
12/3/175826/12/1758Captain & Commanding Officer – HMS Caroline
26/12/175823/5/1762Captain & Commanding Officer – HMS Hussar – was struck on a reef off Cape Français of St. Domingo on 23/5/1762 , and was lost, her officers and men becoming prisoners of war. In June Carkett and the other officers were sent to England on parole, but he was not exchanged till the following December.
1759 Blockade of Dunkirk
2/8/17638/6/1767Captain & Commanding Officer – HMS Active (to the West indies)
Early 1767Mediterranean
post 28/2/1767after death of Capt. Arthur Gardiner was made Captain & Commanding Officer – ‘HMS Surprize’
12/3/1767Promoted to Admiral after capturing the French ship ‘Foudroyant’
March 1767February 1768Captain & Commanding Officer – ‘HMS Hussar’ – frigate
Captain & Commanding Officer – ‘HMS Revenge’
15/6/176912/5/1773Captain & Commanding Officer – HMS Lowestoffe
1770 Senior Officer in Jamaica (was later superceded)
  Captain & Commanding Officer – ‘HMS Active’
30/10/17785/10/1780Captain & Commandring Officer – ‘HMS Stirling Castle’ – of 64 guns
Dec 1778sailed for West Indies (which included – see below)
6/7/1779 Battle of Grenada
21/12/177922/12/1779In Action
17/4/1779 Battle of Martinique
21/12/177922/12/1779Action of 21/12/1779
15/5/1780 In Action
19/5/1780 In Action
5/10/1780 HMS Stirllng Castle (lost at sea)

Service Record (Robert Carkett RN) –

CARKETT, ROBERT (1719c-1780) – was a Captain in the Royal Navy, and seems to have joined in 1734 as an Able Seaman on board the ‘Exeter’. Thence afterwards in the ‘Grampus’ and ‘Alderney’, both being sloops. He then served in that capacity for upwards of four years, when he was appointed to the Plymouth as Midshipman. In that ship, then belonging to the Mediterranean fleet, he remained there for nearly five years, and during the latter part of the time under the command of Capt. GB Rodney. He passed his examination on 18 July 1743, sailed for the East Indies in the ‘Deptford’ in May 1744, was made Lieutenant in the following February, and returned to England in September 1746. During the rest of the war he served in theSurprize’ frigate, and in March 1755 was appointed to the ‘Monmouth’, a small ship of 64 guns, which, after two years in the Channel, was early in 1767, sent out to the Mediterranean under the command of Capt. Arthur Gardiner.

In the early part of 1758 the squadron under Vice Admiral Osborn was blockading Cartagena. On the evening of 28 February the ‘Monmouth’ chased the French 80 gun ship ‘Foudroyant’ out of sight of the squadron, and single handly brought her to action. About nine o’clock Gardiner fell mortally wounded, and the command devolved on Carkett as First Lieutenant, who continued the fight with equal spirit. Both ships were beaten nearly to a standstill, when the ‘Swiftsure’ of 70 guns came up about one o’clock in the morning, and the ‘Foudroyant’ surrendered. Carkett was immediately promoted by the admiral to command the prize, and a few days later appointed to the ‘Revenge’, which he took to England.

His post rank was dated 12 March and he continued in command of the ‘Revenge’, in the Downs, till the following February. He was then appointed to the ‘Hussar’ frigate, and commanded her at home and in the West Indies till 23 May 1762, when she struck on a reef off Cape Français of St. Domingo, and was lost, her officers and men becoming prisoners of war. In June Carkett and the other officers were sent to England on parole, but he was not exchanged till the following December.

In August 1763 he commissioned the ‘Active’, which he commanded in the West Indies, and most of the time at Pensacola, till 1767, in June of that year she was paid off at Chatham. In July 1769 he commissioned the ‘Lowestoft’, and again spent the greater part of his time at Pensacola, where his duties seem to have been promoting the welfare of the settlement and cultivating vegetables. His gardening was interrupted for a short time in 1770 by the death of Commodore Forrest, in consequence of which he had to undertake the duties of senior officer at Jamaica; but on being superseded by Commodore Mackenzie he returned to Pensacola, and remained there for the next three years. The ‘Lowestoft’ was paid off in May 1773.

In November 1778 Carkett was appointed to command the’ Stirling Castle’ of 64 guns, and in December sailed for the West Indies in the squadron under Commodore Rowley. He thus in the following summer had his share of the clumsily fought action off Grenada (refer to John Byron 1723–1786), and on 17 April 1780 led the line in the action to leeward of Martinique [see  Lord George Rodney).

Of Carkett’s personal courage there can be no doubt, but his experience with fleet was extremely small, and of naval tactics he knew nothing beyond the rule for the line of battle laid down in the fighting instructions. When, therefore, Rodney, after directing the attack to be concentrated on the enemy’s rear, made the signal to engage, Carkett in the ‘Stirling Castle’ stretched along to engage the enemy van. Rodney wrote to the secretary of the admiralty on 26 April 1780 that his error had been fatal to the success of the action. This clause of Rodney’s letter was not published in the ‘Gazette,’ but Carkett learned from England that something of the sort had been sent. He accordingly wrote to Rodney desiring to see that part of it which related to him. All the satisfaction I received, he complained to the secretary of the admiralty on 23 July 1780, ‘was his acknowledgment that he had informed their lordships that I had not properly obeyed his signals in attacking the enemy rear’ (Beatson, Nav. and Mil. Memoirs, vi. 222). Rodney’s letter did in fact, contain a very severe reprimand, of which Carkett made no mention, but requested the secretary of the admiralty to lay his explanation before their lordships. Whether he ever received an answer is doubtful, for the ‘Stirling Castle’, which had been sent to Jamaica, and thence ordered home with the trade, was, in a violent hurricane on 5 Oct, totally lost on Silver Keys, some small rocks to the north of Cape Français. All onboard perished, with the exception of a midshipman and four seamen (per Official Letters and other documents in the Public Record Office; Charnock’s Biog. Navalis, vi. 300).

BRADSHAWS OF HALTON HALL – were a Lancashire family who were prosperous tapestry and ere also a furniture maker of Soho, London. A William Bradshaw (1700c-1775) bought Halton Hall in 1743 and he died there in retirement without issue.

Not proven but William may have had a brother in George Smith Bradshaw (1717-1812). Who likewise was also a furniture maker of Soho, London, and was associated in business with William. He had two sons (one being John Smith Bradshaw), and two daughters.

Mary Carkett was christened on 13/10/1760 in Devon – the daughter of Robert Carkett and Sarah Darracott who married on 25/4/1751 at St Andrew & Luke, Stoke on Dameral, Plymouth, Devon (Robert was at this time a Lieutenant at the time of his marriage and was serving on HMS Surprize)


The BATTLE OF MARTINIQUE (per Wikipedia) – the fleets began manoeuvring for the advantage of the weather guage on the morning of 17 April. By 8.45 the Rodney had reached a position to the windward of Guichen, in a relatively close formation. To escape the danger to his rear, Guichen ordered his line to wear and sail to the north, stringing out the line in the process. This forced Rodney to go through another series of manoeuvres to regain his position, which he did by late morning. At this point, he hoped to engage the rear and centre of Guichen’s elongated line, concentrating his power to maximize damage there before Guichen’s van could join the action. The signal that Rodney issued was for each ship to engage the appropriate ship it was paired with according to the disposition of the two fleets. He issued this signal with the understanding that his captains would execute it in the context of signals given earlier in the day that the enemy’s rear was the target of the attack.

Unfortunately for the British, Robert Carkett (the commander of the lead ship HMS Stirling Castle) either misunderstood the signal or had forgotten the earlier one, and moved ahead to engage Guichen’s van. He was followed by the rest of Rodney’s fleet, and the two lines ended up engaging ship to ship.

Thanks to the orderly fashion in which De Guichen’s subordinate squadron commanders dealt with the crisis, especially the third-in-command ‘Comte de Grasse’s’ rapid closing up of the battle line, Guichen managed to extricate himself from a difficult situation and instead turn a narrow defeat to a drawn battle, although his and Marquis de Bouillé’s objective to attack and seize Jamaica was thwarted.

During the battle, both Rodney’s ”Sandwich’ and Guichen’s ‘Couronne’ were temporarily cut off from their respective fleets and bore the brunt of the battle.

In the aftermath, Rodney felt that the failure to properly attack the French rear cost the British an opportunity for a significant victory, and assessed blame to Carkett and others who did not properly follow his signals. Others assigned the blame to Rodney, for failing to inform his captains in advance of his intended tactics.

(David Hannay) the author of the biography on the Comte de Guichen in the 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, stated that Guichen had shown himself very skillful in handling a fleet throughout the campaign, and although there was no marked success, he had at least prevented the British admiral from doing any harm to the French islands in the Antilles.

Both fleets avoided further action prior to the hurricane season. Guichen returned to France with many of his damaged ships in August, and Rodney sailed for New York.

Dictionary of National Biography (Supplement to Volume 22)
Will of Robert Carkett (5 September 1781)- Captain of His Majesty’s Ship of War ‘HMS Lowestoffe’
(per Prerogative Court of Canterbury)

Part 10 –       Latter generations of the Smith family

Passing of Mrs Margaret Smith SMITH (nee Bradshaw/Radshaw) in 1811

Mrs Smith (Bradshaw/Radshaw) died on 21 January 1811 (another source has her being buried on 17 January) – several days after giving birth to possibly twins – of at least one who did not survive. Margaret was buried at the old Sydney burial ground which is now under the Sydney Town Hall. The cemetery was used between 1792 to 1820 (having been extended in 1812), unfortunately it is believed that no burial Register was ever kept.

Margaret’s correct married name was Margaret Smith SMITH – due to her having the middle name of Smith when born

Joseph is believed not have later remarried (there are however Family trees at Ancestry.com that suggest that he remarried later in 1811 and had four more children).  This research however cannot find any evidence that this is indeed was a second marriage of the same Joseph Smith. As detailed earlier there is also a forum on the Smith name on the Internet, regarding the possible multiple errors that researchers have made in regards to the family of  Joseph Smith and Margaret Bradshaw – different families being muddled up together etc.

The passing of Joseph SMITH  in 1826

Joseph SMITH (1783c-1826) – labourer
Burial Record – 10 Dec 1826 Parramatta, New South Wales (aged 42)

From the arrival Joseph Smith and Margaret Bradshaw in the Colony in 1804, the only subsequent generations from that union that produced great grand children was that from the Sarah Smith and Thomas Norris union, as follows –

The Norris Family –

Thomas Norris born in 1793c he  was transported to the Colony for ‘stealing a brass pot’, he is believed to have worked at Bingley near Coventry.  He is also recorded as being the bastard child of Thomas Norris and Mary Thoms (though this research has not followed this claim any further)

Christening record for Mary Thoms (mother of Thomas Norris)
Jeffreyston, Pembrokeshire, Wales  – parents William and Martha.
(Mary daughter of William Thoms and Martha his wife was baptised 5 December 1770)

Original Quarter Sessions Record: ‘Thomas Norris late of St Giles, Northampton, labourer and Henry Palmer of same, labourer, were indicted on three counts of stealing on the 7th December 1822 a Brass Pot valued at 4 shillings and a Brass Pot lid valued at 1 shilling described alternately in the three counts as either belonging to the Overseer’s of the Poor, St Giles Parish or George Douglas or Mary Douglas – Widow’.

Prison Hulk Records
No – 6827
Offence – ___ Brass Pot
Where and When Convicted – Northampton 15/6/1823

On 15/3/1833 Thomas Norris, a water carrier of this town (Hobart Town), was charged with receiving a quantity of stolen wood, the property of the Crown, which has been lately robbed to a large amount : he was committed for further examination.

Occupation at time of Conviction – Chimney Sweep

Occupation at Time of Death – Labourer

Ticket of Leave Granted – 10 Oct 1827 Hobart Town

Certificate of Freedom – Granted 24 February 1830 Hobart Town

Living in Port Phillip by 1847 and listed as a Fisherman.

Thomas was 5’3’ tall and had blue eyes and brown hair.

Thomas is recorded by some descendants of this family as possibly having worked on Whalers (ie on Whaling Expedition), as this name is mentioned in Whaling Fleets at about this time. This research can not concur that there is an accuracy to this assumption.

Page 1 – Thomas NORRIS  (where Convicted & Date – Northumberland, 13 January 1823, Sentence – 7 years)
Page 2 – Thomas NORRIS
Native Place – Coventry
Trade or Calling – Chimney Sweep
Age 28
Eyes – blue
Hair Brown
Distinguishing Marks – None
Court Records
No. – 111
Ship – Competitor
Name – Thomas NORRIS
Where Sentenced – Northampton (Town)
When – 15 January 1823
Term – 7 years
Other – __ 1830/88
Vessel arrived on – ‘Competitor’
Departed Southampton Jan 1828 – Sentence 7 years
Thomas Norris – Received on Prison Hulk –Justitia at Woolwich 10 Feb 1823
Age – 30
Offence – __ Brass Pol (?) Northampton Sessions 15 Jan 1823
Sentence – 7 yrs
Remarks – Transported 12 Mar 1823
Arrival Details
No. 100 Thomas NORRIS
Ship arrived by – Competitor
Assigned to – (unreadable)
Ticket of Leave (10 October 1827 Hobart Town) – No. 100 Thomas NORRIS
Per convict transport  – ‘Competitor’
Launceston Advertiser Monday 1 June 1829
Thomas Norris – Ticket of Leave

Certificate of Freedom (24 February 1830 Hobart Town) granted for Thomas Norris

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Melbourne Electoral Roll 1842 – Thomas NORRIS 
From the Port Phillip Directory (1847)

In the Port Phillip Directory of 1847 – Thomas NORRIS is recorded as a Fisherman (he owned/had a house between Lonsdale St & Little Bourke St, Melb*) & his father–in-law Joseph SMITH is recorded as a Grazier, Big Bill, Kilmore.

* the NORRIS family were still at same residence in 1842 and 1847

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Death Certificate – Thomas NORRIS (labourer) 29 December 1850 – aged about 60 yrs

Whilst no ‘later’ descendants are known per the research undertaken on the earlier family lines of the Bradshaw families – descendants do however survive to this day from the earlier Smith family lines, as follows –

From the THIRD GENERATION – from first marriage of Louisa SMITH (1809-1879) to Thomas NORRIS (1795c-1850) The family moved from VDL to NSW, then to Victoria sometime before 1841

Benjamin (Smith) NORRISb 1/10/1828 Hobart Town, VDLchr 23/11/1828 Hobart Town, VDLd 1880
(of the Loyal Good Intent Lodge MUIOOF)
b 1830 Hobart Town, VDLchr 15/8/1830 Melville St Methodist, Hobart Town, VDLd 5/9/1893 Sydney, NSW bur St. Kilda, Melbourne, VIC
George Thomas NORRIS b late Feb 1832 Hobart Town, VDLchr 5/3/1832 Hobart Town, VDLd Mar 1832 Hobart Town (aged 14 days)
bur 10/3/1832 Hobart Town
Louisa NORRIS b 15/4/1833 Hobart Town, VDLchr 30/6/1833 Melville St Methodist Church, Hobart Town, VDLd 12/5/1902 South Yarra, Melbourne bur St. Kilda Cemetery, VIC
Martha NORRIS b 4/4/1835 Hobart Town (Glenorchy/Port Arthur ?) VDLchr 15/4/1835 Melville St, Methodist, Hobart Town, VDLd 17/4/1835 Hobart Town
bur 20/4/1835 Hobart Town (name perpetuated 1837c)
Susan/Susannah NORRIS b 1836c Hobart Town, VDL *no christening record locatedd 29/7/1845 Big Hill, Port Phillip Dist. (name perpetuated in 1850) – Accidently Killed (by fire)
Martha NORRIS b 1838c Hobart Town, VDLchr _____ @ Melville St Methodist Church, Hobart Town, VDLd 30/1/1881 Clifton Hill, VIC (aged 42) bur St. Kilds (Wesleyan)
Thomas Joseph NORRIS b 13/1/1841 Melbourne Town, Port Phillip Dist. chr 14/1/1841d Jan 1841 Port Phillip District (name perpetuated in 1842)
Joseph William NORRIS (labourer)
never married
b 13/3/1843 Melbourne Town, Port Phillip Dist. chr 24/5/1843 Parramatta, (Concord) NSW ?d 27/12/1884 South Yarra, Melbourne, Vic (of gastric cancer) bur St. Kilda – 3 yrs in Vic & 39 yrs in Victoria
Sarah Margaret NORRIS b 6/4/1845 Melbourne Town, Port Phillip Dist.m 1867 Victoria d 1921 Oakleigh, Melbourne
Susannah Elizabeth NORRIS b 1847/1850 Melbourne Town, Port Phillip Dist.m 5/12/1866 Ballarat, Victoriad 2/10/1867 Victoria
bur 30/10/1867 St. Kilda, Melbourne
– headstone records her as 20yo –
Details – Neices & Nephews of Joseph SMITH
* although Susan/Susannah NORRIS birth or christening record has not been found – she is recorded on her mother’s death certificate
(with her age clearly detailed), which also corresponds with the newspaper details reporting her tragic death in 1845.

                                                    and who the above NORRIS siblings later married

Benjamin (Smith) NORRIS (1828-1880)m 23/11/1851 East Melbourne Ann Harriett McLEISH (1832-1878)x 5 children
Joshua NORRIS (1830-1893)
(at time of death was living at 16 Albion St, South Yarra)
(1) m 1851 Melbourne, Victoria
query as to if this first marriage is to the same Joseph NORRIS ?

(2)m 25/12/1857 (by special license), Heidelberg, Victoria

Lucinda Elizabeth WARMAN
(1832-1853) – No Issue ?

Fanny Frances (Fanny) WALL (only daughter of Thomas Wall)
b 1838c
d 12/8/1892 (aged 54)

x 9 children
Louisa NORRIS (1833-1902)m 12/2/1851 St James Cathedral, Melbourne
(1897 were living in King St, Prahran)
James JENNINGS (1831-1921)x 14 children
Martha NORRIS (1837c-1881)m 25/3/1857 Melbourne Charles HUTCHINGS (1833-1895)x 12 children
Sarah Margaret NORRIS (1845-1921)m 1867 VictoriaHenry John COATES (1843-1937)x 2 children
Susannah Elizabeth NORRIS (circa 1847/50-1867)m 1866 Victoria George William PARKINSON (1838-1920) No Issue

Christening and burial records of Norris children at Hobart Town, VDL –

Benjamin Norris christening 1 October 1828 Hobart Town (father – labourer)
Joshua Norris christening 30 May 1830 Hobart Town (father – Carter)
George Norris burial 10 March 1832 Hobart Town (14 days old – father Carter)
Louisa Norris christening 30 June 1833 Hobart Town (father – waterman)
Martha Norris christening 18 April 1835 Hobart Town (father – waterman)
Martha Norris burial 20 April 1835 – died 17 April 1835 at 13 days old – (father – Carter)
Thomas Norris – born 13 March 1841 Melbourne
christened 14 March 1841 Wesleyan Church
St. Kilda Cemetery
Susannah Parkinson (nee Norris) ? died 2 October 1867
(headstone records her as aged 20 ?)
Death Certificate for Joseph Norris (labourer) 27 December 1884
the second eldest son of – Louisa SMITH (1809-1879) and Thomas NORRIS (1795c-1850)
The Herald – Thursday 30 October 1890
Re Benjamin NORRIS (1828-1880)
The Argus 3 Jan 1853
Select Special CommitteeT formed to determine the first discover of gold at Bendigo – one name put foreward was that of Joshua Norris
The Argus – Friday 10 October 1890

Passing of Louisa Ford (formerly Norris) nee Smith

Death Certificate (halved to x2  above) for Louisa FORD (nee SMITH formerly NORRIS) –

Louisa NORRIS (per death certificate above) –

 Died 23 March 1879 and of  St Edmunds Rd, Town of Prahran
Aged69 (old age debility) – No Medical Attendant
ParentsJoseph SMITH and Margaret (maiden surname unknown ) – although it appears to have been BRAYSHAW per this  research
InformantLouisa JENNINGS – daughter (of King St, Prahran)
Buried29 March 1879, St. Kilda Cemetery (Thomas JENNINGS (son in law)
  Isabella WHITE 29 March 1879 Prahran
  John B__________ (Baptist) James O’Gray (?)
  Sydney NSW, 15 yrs Tasmania, 39 years Victoria
Years in Colony1st Hobart Town, Tasmania 18 yrs, 2nd Melbourne, Victoria 42 yrs
Spouses17 yrs Thomas NORRIS   18 yrs  John Robert FORD
1st marriage (children)Benjamin, Joshua, Thomas, Louisa, Martha, Susannah, Martha, Thomas Joseph, Joseph William, Sarah Margaret, Susan Elizabeth  
Headstone – Martha HUTCHINGS (nee NORRIS)
died 30/1/1881 aged 42 – niece of Mr Joseph Smith of Big Hill
her husband – Charles HUTCHINGS died 17 June 1895 aged 62
daughter – Ada Florence HUTCHINGS died 11 Jan 1862 aged 16 months
grand-daughter  – Edith Maud MURPHY died 5 July 1911 aged 7
 Died 23 March 1879 and of  St Edmunds Rd, Town of Prahran
Aged69 (old age debility) – No Medical Attendant
ParentsJoseph SMITH and Margaret (maiden surname unknown ) – although it appears to have been BRAYSHAW per this  research
InformantLouisa JENNINGS – daughter (of King St, Prahran)
Buried29 March 1879, St. Kilda Cemetery (Thomas JENNINGS (son in law)
 Isabella WHITE 29 March 1879 Prahran
 John B__________ (Baptist) James O’Gray (?)
 Sydney NSW, 15 yrs Tasmania, 39 years Victoria
Years in Colony1st Hobart Town, Tasmania 18 yrs, 2nd Melbourne, Victoria 42 yrs
Spouses17 yrs Thomas NORRIS 18 yrs  John Robert FORD
1st marriage (children)Benjamin, Joshua, Thomas, Louisa, Martha, Susannah, Martha, Thomas Joseph, Joseph William, Sarah Margaret, Susan Elizabeth  
Louisa NORRIS (per death certificate) –

There was no Issue from Lousia’s 2nd marriage

Marriage Notice (25 March 1857)
Martha NORRIS and Charles HUTCHINGS (wholesale fruiterer)
Death Certificate for Martha HUTCHINGS (nee NORRIS) 

FOURTH GENERATION – Joshua NORRIS (1830-1893) marriage to Fanny Frances (Fanny) WALL (1838c-1892)

Clara Louisa Elizabeth NORRISb 4/5/1859 Prahrand 7/10/1920 Northcote, VIC
bur Pine Ridge (Coburg), Cemetery, VIC
m before 1884 (x2)Samuel Joseph (Jabez) WOOD (1859-1910)x6 children
Emma Rosina NORRISb 1860 Prahrand 1863 VIC  – 
Thomas James NORRISb 1863 Prahrand 1955 St. Kilda, VICm 1885Florence Mary DARLING (1865c-1939)x6 children
William Edmund NORRISb 1865 Prahranposs. d 3/5/1915 Menindee, Central Darling, NSW ?  – 
Charles Joshua NORRISb 1866 Prahrand 1920 South Yarram 1894 Vic (x3)Ann Lavinia Mary OWEN
widowed – (2)m 1925 VIC to George Henry FARLEIGH
x3 children
Ernest Albert NORRISb 1869 Prahrand 24/8/1940 Melbourne Benevolent Asylum, Cheltenham, Vic
bur 26/4/1940 Brighton, VIC
Martha Fanny(Frances ?) NORRISb 1871 Prahran d 1930 Victoria m 1916 VIC ?Benjamin Wesley GRAY (1886-1946) ?
(2) m Jane Elizabeth STRUSS (x3 children)
(3) m Ruth IRELAND (x4 children)
(4) m Alice BRUCE (x2 children)
No Issue
Minerva Susannah NORRISb 1873 Prahrand 1876c VIC  – 
Harry Wall NORRISb 1875c Prahrand 1960 Malvern, VIC 

In 1949 were living at 130 Darling Rd, Malvern East, Melbourne, VIC
m 1904 VIC Mary Jane CAPEL (1881-1962)x3 children
Details – Great Neices & Nephews of Joseph SMITH
Martha Norris, Allan Lovett and Teddy Lovett
Allan Lovett, Martha Fanny (Frances ?) NORRIS (1871-1930), Teddy Lovett
(as to who Allan and Teddy Lovett are is unknown per this research)

FOURTH GENERATION – from the marriage of Louisa NORRIS (1833-1902) to James JENNINGS (1831-1921

Thomas Joshua JENNINGS (twins?)b 1854 Prahrand 1854 Prahran
James Joseph JENNINGS (twins?)b 1854 Prahrand 1855 Prahran
Details – Great Nephews of Joseph SMITH

FOURTH GENERATION – from the marriage of Martha NORRIS (1837c-1881 to Charles HUTCHINGS (1833-1895)

David HUTCHINGSb 1858 Richmondd 1858 Richmond
Charles David HUTCHINGSb 1859 Prahrand 1860 Melbourne
David James HUTCHINGSCCF18122010_00003b 3 June 1861 Melb.d 27/9/1920
South Melb.
m 1883 Launceston, Tasmania Sarah Ann GIBBS (1861-1954)
x 11 children
Mary Ann HUTCHINGSMary Ann Hutchings ^b 18/11/1863 Prahranchr 27/12/1863 Third Cult Circuit Melbourne (Bourke) d 5/4/1943 Malvern East m 3/10/1890 to James MURPHY (1861-1926) at  Moor St, Fitzroyx6 children
Ada Florence HUTCHINGSb 12/9/1865 Prahran chr 8/10/1865 Melb.d 11/1/1867 Vic bur St. Kilda (Wesleyan)  –
Charles Alfred HUTCHINGSb 1867 Prahran d 3//3/1956 Northcote m Edith Emily COLLETT (1867-1967) at Fitzroy (Emily died aged 100 yrs and 11 days)No Issue
 Edward Arthur HUTCHINGSb 16/2/1869 Prahran chr 7/3/1868 Melbourned 9/8/1943 Yarraville m Margaret Ellen WILSON (1871-1959) in 1893 Melbourne Edward Arthur Hutchingsx6 children
 Ada Martha HUTCHINGSb 1871 Prahran d 1872 Vic
bur St. Kilda (Wesleyan)
 John HUTCHINGSb 1872 d 1872 Vic
bur St. Kilda (Wesleyan)
 John Thomas HUTCHINGSb 1873 Prahran d 1874 Vic
bur St. Kilda (Wesleyan)
 Martha Elizabeth HUTCHINGSd 1877 Prahran d1877 Vic
bur St. Kilda (Wesleyan)
Ernest HUTCHINGSb 1880 Prahran d 1895 Prince Alfred Hospital, Melb., Vic  –
Details – Great Nephews of Joseph SMITH


 – from marriage of Sarah Margaret NORRIS (1845-1921) to Henry James COATES (1843-1937)

Jane COATESb 1868 Prahran, Melbourne Victoriad 1877 Vic
Details – Great Nephews of Joseph SMITH

FIFTH GENERATION – Clara Louisa NORRIS marriage to Samuel Jabez WOOD

William Harry WOODb 1885 Prahran, Melbourned 1870 Croydon
Peter Samuel WOODb 1887 Melbourned 1983 Fairfield, Melbournem 1921 Victoria
Elsie May HENKEL (1893-1990)
Issue – if any, not known
Arthur Edward WOODb 1889 Victoriad 3/5/1919 not known if married
Edith Fanny WOODb 1891 Richmond,
b 1889 Melbourne
Edward Wilfred WOODb 1892 Richmond, Melbourned 1975 Cheltenham, Melbournem 4/12/1920 Brighton, Melbourne Maria Adelaide WIGGETT (1894c-1977)x4 children
Beatrice Martha WOODb 2/6/1894
South Yarra, Melbourne
d 27/4/1970 Heidelberg, Melb.m 1927 Victoria Joseph HARWOOD (1881-1971)Issue – if any, not known
Details – Great Great Nephews of Joseph SMITH


Whilst this research was unable to find there being any descendants of Sarah SMITH nee MORETON (formerly Whitaker & Whamsby), it has been possible to establish that there indeed are descendants in subsequent generations from the family line of Joseph SMITH.


Each Generation of earlier direct descendants known for

Joseph SMITH (1807-1949) and Sarah MORETON (1796c-1851)

m (x3)
Arminel COLL
Great Great Great Grand-Parents of Joseph Smith

n/kn/kn/kn/kn/kn/kn/kJohn CARKITT/CARKETT
Great Great Grand-Parents of Joseph Smith

possibly a SMITH line
here ?)
(possibly a
SMITH line
here ?)
George Smith

Capt. Robert CARKET (RN)
‘lost at sea’
m 1751 Sarah

(1725- )
n/k n/k n/k n/k
Great Grand-Parents of Joseph Smith

n/k Capt. John Smith BRADSHAW (RN)
(1760- )
m 1781 (x3)
Mary CARKETT (1760- )
n/k n/k
Grand-Parents of Joseph Smith

Joseph SMITH (1783-1826) – convict
m 1810 – had cohabitated together from 1804 (x5+)
Margaret Smith BRADSHAW (1783-1811) – convict
n/k (not known)
Parents of Joseph Smith

Part 11 – Conclusion

With Mr & Mrs Smith identities now having been identified per this research from at least from 1841, its now up to the reader now to make up their own mind as to whether they agree with the ‘journey’ detailed here or otherwise.

Should the ‘Pretty Sally’ legend just maybe have been left to remain as that – as the truth is frequently much less interesting than the legend.

Certainly towards the end of their somewhat short lives, Mr & Mrs Smith appear to likely have been hard working and early pioneers of the Port Phillip District. They most likely did accumulate some small or moderate wealth (savings) prior to arriving at Big Hill which largely would have been put towards stocking their ‘Station’, payment of the annual licensing fees and just maybe in employing some labour (with board and keep) upon their Station. Indeed the 1841 census possibly details/eludes to Joseph Smith having had up to 3 men in in his employ on the ‘Station’ at that time.

Three times married Sarah Moreton (from the sentence of Death and to a Life convict) after having having been abandoned by her first husband, was after nine/ten years of good conduct in the Colony, was recommended for and received her Ticket of Leave. Then nine years later she obtained her Conditional Pardon.

If nothing else we now likely know that Pretty Sally’s activities upon the Big Hill were in no way of an illegal nature, and that they almost certainly lived on the side of Big Hill and not upon its crest as has been accepted for well on 170 plus years until now.

Mr & Mrs Smith were one of the earliest couples to travel into the still largely unexplored interior of the Port Phillip District, that later became the Colony of Victoria (from 1851).  Hopefully their simple but interesting life has now at least portrayed them both in a more favourable and interesting light here.

Any corrections and/or additions to this article would greatly be received, accordingly any additions would be acknowledged (with credit) for later inclusion here. This can be done by contacting oldplaces.com.au directly.

Part 12 – Resources & Acknowledgements

NSW State Records and Archives. NSW Government Gazette, State Library of Victoria, Town & District Directory PPD, Colonial & Convict Records of NSW, Public Records Office of Victoria, Trove – The Port Phillip Patriot and Melbourne Advertiser, The Melbourne Argus PPD, Melbourne Daily News PPD, The Melbourne Courier PPD, The Maitland Mercury and Hunter River General Advertiser NSW, The Herald, Maitland Mercury & Hunter Valley Advertiser NSW. The Herald, Hobart Town Courier, Nottingham Evening Post, England, Universal Magazine, Godden MacKay Logan Heritage Consultants. Pastoral Pioneers of Port Phillip’ by RV Bills and AS Kenyon (1932), portphillippioneers.group.org.au, findagrave.com, Foo Was Here, City of Melbourne Collection, William Ashton Coomer Robinson (Truth Stranger than Fiction 1861), A Taste of Old Kilmore (KHS Members 1967), Manuscript titled ‘Early Day Experiences’ by George Frederick Sugden (1841-1917), The Memorial History of Melbourne (Isaac Selby 1924), City of Sydney, Victorian Place names and their Location (John George Saxon 1907) Find a Grave., Ancestry.com, Beatson, Naval and Military Memoirs, Official Letters and other documents in the Public Record Office; Charnock’s Naval Biography, Wikipedia an William Elliott 7 Valentine Green.

Last but not least to Grahame Thom (Vice President of the Kilmore Historical Society) who ‘came onboard in the latter stages’ of this article – to add his critical comment and additional contribution which was greatly appreciated.

(NB: PPD = Port Phillip District)